Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 232–243 | Cite as

Cystic echinococcosis in animals and humans of Maharashtra State, India

  • V. M. VaidyaEmail author
  • R. J. Zende
  • A. M. Paturkar
  • M. L. Gatne
  • D. G. Dighe
  • R. N. Waghmare
  • S. L. Moon
  • S. S. Bhave
  • K. G. Bengale
  • N. V. Nikale


Echinococcosis/hydatidosis which is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in the developing country like India. The study was conducted during April, 2010 to March, 2017 to determine the prevalence among slaughtered food animals, dogs and human. The samples were collected from the various slaughterhouses situated in different regions of Maharashtra state. A total of 9464 cattle (male), 3661 buffalo, 47189 sheep, 33350 goats and 13579 pigs were scientifically examined during PM inspection at different slaughterhouses. The study revealed that the prevalence of disease in cattle (3.00%) was highest followed by buffalo (2.05%), pig (1.28%), sheep (0.09%) and goat (0.01%), by PM examination. The average estimated economic losses (direct and indirect) due to hydatidosis were Rs. 8,65,83,566 in cattle, Rs. 44,33,93,900 in buffalo, Rs. 7,24,50,615 in sheep, Rs. 1,88,29,359 in goat and Rs. 5,20,49,081 in pigs. Dog faecal samples analyzed and showed the prevalence of echinococcosis as 4.34% (19/438) by sedimentation method and positive samples were confirmed by PCR assay, whereas in high risk human, 11.09% sera samples were found to be positive for echinococcosis. However, based on data collection for seven years, 58 patients were found to be surgically operated for hydatid cyst removal. The results of the present study indicated that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is prevalent in both human and animal population in study areas which attracts serious attention from veterinary and public health authority to reduce economic burden and in designing appropriate strategy for prevention and control of disease.


Cystic echinococcosis food animals PM examination prevalence economic losses dogs humans PCR assay 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarif, K., Suhani, B., Mathur, K.N., Sharma, R.L., Makhdoomi, D.M., Nazir, A., et al. 2015. Retrospective study of hydatidosis in buffaloes slaughtered in Mirha exports private limited in Punjab. Indian Buffalo Bulletin, 34, 231–240Google Scholar
  2. Abbasi, I., Branzburg, A., Campos-Ponce, M., Hafez S.K.A., Raoul, F., Craig, P.S., et al. 2003. Copro-diagnosis of E. granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 69, 324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abebe, A., Beyene, D., Kumsa B. 2014. Cystic echinococcosis in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora export Abattoir, northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 38, 404–409. DOI: 10.1007/s12639-013-0255-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Acosta-Jamett, G., Cleaveland, S., Bronsvoort, B.M., Cunninghamb A.A., Bradshaw, H., Craig, P.S. 2010. Echinococcus granulosus infection in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Coquimbo region, North-central Chile. Veterinary Parasitology, 169, 117–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.12.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adane, M., Guadu, T. 2014. Bovine hydatidosis: occurrence, economic and public health importance in Gondar Elfora abattoir. European Journal of Applied Science, 6, 11–19. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ejas.2014.6.2.8585Google Scholar
  6. Bekele, J., Butako B. 2011. Occurrence and financial loss assessment of cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Wolayita Sodo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43, 221–228. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9680-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Shimol, S., Sagi, O., Houri, O., Bazarsky, E., Berkowitz, A., Bulkowstein, S., et al. 2016. Cystic echinococcosis in Southern Israel. Acta Parasitologica, 61, 178–186. DOI: 10.1515/ap-2016-00PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhattacharya, D., Bera, A.K., Bera, B.C., Maity, A., Das S.K. 2007. Genotypic characterization of Indian cattle, buffalo and sheep isolates of Echinococcus granulosus. Veterinary Parasitology, 143, 371–374. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.09.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bijuwork, A., Kebede, N., Tibat, T., Tilahun, G., Kassa T. 2013. Occurrences and financial significance of bovine cystic echinococcosis in Southern Wollo, North-eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 5, 51–56. DOI: 10.5897/JVMAH12.072Google Scholar
  10. Blancas, M.M., Herrera, E.R., Rodrguez, P.C., Tavizn G.J.P., Mercado R.M., Badillo, A.V., et al. 2007. Gender as a factor of susceptibility to infection in experimental hydatidosis. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologia, 49, 31–37. DOI: 10.0000/PMID18693550Google Scholar
  11. Borji, H., Naghibi, A., Jahangiri F. 2012. Copro-DNA test for diagnosis of canine echinococcosis. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 22, 909–912. DOI: 10.1007/s00580-012-1498-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Craig P.S., Gasser R.B., Parada, L., Cabrera, P., Parietti, S., Borgues C., et al. 1995. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of copro-antigen and serum antibody tests with arecoline purgation in Uruguay. Veterinary Parasitology, 56, 293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daryani, A., Alaei, R., Arab, R., Sharif, M., Dehghan, M.H., Ziaei H. 2007. The prevalence, intensity and viability of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in the Ardabil province of Northwest Iran. Journal of Helminthology, 81, 13–17. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X0720731XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Debas, E., Ibrahim N. 2013. Prevalence and economic importance of hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at North Gonder Elfora abattoir. European Journal of Applied Science, 5, 29–35. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ejas.2013.5.1.6564Google Scholar
  15. Dinkel, A., von Nickisch-Rosenegk, M., Bilger, B., Merli, M., Lucius R., Romig T. 1998. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in the definitive host: coprodiagnosis by PCR as an alternative to necropsy. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36, 1871–1876PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Edo, T., Tsegay A.K. 2015. Prevalence of small ruminant hydatidosis and its economic impact at Asella Municipal Abattoir. Food Science and Quality Management, 45, 213–218Google Scholar
  17. Fagzel, F., Ghanbary H. 2002. “Hydatid cyst of the orbit”. Journal of Isfahan Medical School, 20, 65Google Scholar
  18. Fromsa, A., Jobre Y. 2011. Infection prevalence of hydatidosis (E. granulosus, Batsch, 1786) in domestic animals in Ethiopia: A synthesis report of previous surveys. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 15, 11–33. DOI: 10.4314/evj.v15i2.67691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Getaw, A., Beyena, D., Ayana, D., Megersa, B., Abunna F. 2010. “Hydatidosis: Prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia. Acta Tropica, 113, 221–225. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.10.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Godara, R., Katoch, R., Yadav A. 2014. Hydatidosis in goats in Jammu, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 38, 73–76. DOI: 10.1007/s12639-012-0191-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gudewar, J., Pan, D., Bera, K., Das, S.K., Konar, A., Rao, J.R., et al. 2009. Molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus of Indian animal isolates on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial genotype. Molecular Biology Reports, 36, 1381–1385. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-008-9324-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gupta, N., Javed, A., Puri, S., Jain, S., Singh, S., Agarwal A.K. 2011. Hepatic Hydatid: PAIR, Drain or Resrct? Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 15, 1829–36. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-011-1649-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haftu, B., Kebede T. 2014. Study on prevalence and economic significance of bovine hydatidosis in Bako municipal abattoir, West Shoa Zone, Oromiya regional state. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 5, 197. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7579.1000197Google Scholar
  24. Heidari, Z., Mohebali, M., Zarei, Z., Aryayipour, M., Eshraghian M.R., Kia E. B. et al. 2011. Seroepidemiological study of human hydatidosis in Meshkinshahr District, Ardabil Province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 6, 19–25PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Ibrahim M.M. 2010. Study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered animals in Al Baha region Saudi Arebia: interaction between some biotic and abiotic factors. Acta Tropica, 113, 26–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.08.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kayal A. Hussain A. 2014. A comprehensive prospective clinical study of hydatid disease. Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Gastroenterology. Volume 2014, Article ID 514757, p 5Google Scholar
  27. Latif, A.A., Tanveer, A., Maqbool, A., Siddiqi, N., Lyaw-Tanner, M., Traub R.J. 2010. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus in livestock and humans in Punjab, Pakistan. Veterinary Parasitology, 170, 44–49. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Melaku, A., Lukas, B., Bogale B. 2012. Cyst viability, organ distribution and financial losses due to hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Dessie Municipal Abattoir, North-eastern Ethiopia. Veterinary World, 5, 213–218. DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2012.213-218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ochi E. B., Simplisio, E.A., Ismail A.O. 2015. A retrospective study on the major causes of meat condemnations in animals slaughtered in Juba county, South Sudan. International Journal of Bioassays, 4, 4620–4624. DOI: Scholar
  30. OIE. 2008. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis. Chapter 2.1.4. In: OIE Terrestrial Manual. pp.175–190.Google Scholar
  31. Pednekar, R.P., Gatne, M.L., Andrew Thompson, R.C., Traub R.J. 2009. Molecular and morphological charecterization of Echinococcus from food producing animals in India. Veterinary Parasitology, 165, 58–65. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.06.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pour, A.A., Hosseini, S.H., Shayan P. 2012. The prevalence and fertility of hydatid cysts in buffaloes from Iran. Journal of Helminthology, 86, 373–377. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X11000514Google Scholar
  33. Prathiush, P.R., D’Souza, P.E., Gowda A.K.J. 2008. Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by a coproantigen sandwich ELISA. Veterinarski Arhiv, 78, 297–305.Google Scholar
  34. Rahimi, M.T., Sharifdini, M., Ahmadi, A., Laktarashi, B., Mahdavi, S.A., Kia E.B. 2011. Hydatidosis in human and slaughtered herbivores in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Asian Pacific Journal Tropical Diseases, 1, 212–215. DOI: 10.1016/S2222-1808(11)60031-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Regassa, A., Abunna, F., Mulugeta, A., Megersa B. 2009. Major metacestodes in cattle slaughtered at Wolayita Sodo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia: Prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and socioeconomic implications. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 1495–1502. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9338-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Robinson, M.W., Dalton J.P. 2009. Zoonotic helminth infections with particular emphasis on fasciolosis and other trematodiases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364, 2763–2776. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sajjan, S.A., Paturkar, A.M., Zende, R.J., Vaidya, V.M., Chethan Kumar H.B. 2015. Prevalence of hydatidosis in domestic pigs and elucidation of its economic impact on pork production. Indian Veterinary Journal, 92, 15–18Google Scholar
  38. Sangaran, A., Arunkumar, S., John Lalitha. 2014. Incidence of hydatidosis in slaughtered sheep and goat. Indian Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 43, 156–158Google Scholar
  39. Sariozkan, S., Yalcin C. 2009. Estimating the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis in ruminants in Turkey. Veterinary Parasitology, 163, 330–334. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.04.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shahnazi, M., Jafari, A., Javadi, M., Saraei M. 2013. Fertility of hydatid cysts and viability of protoscoleces in slaughtered animals in Qazvin, Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5, 141–146. DOI: Scholar
  41. Shaikenov, B.S., Rysmukhambetova, A.T., Massenov, B., Deplazes, P., Mathis, A., Torgerson, P.R. 2004. The use of a polymerase chain reaction to detect Echinococcus granulosus (G1 strain) eggs in soil samples. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71, 441–443. DOI: Scholar
  42. Shambesh, M.A., Craig, P., Macpherson, C.N., Rogan, M.T., Gusbi A.M., Echtuish E.F. 1999. An extensive ultrasound and serologic study to investigate the prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis in northern Libya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 60, 462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Singh, B.B., Singh, G., Sharma, R., Sharma, J.K., Aulakh, R.S., Gill, J.P.S. 2013. Human hydatidosis: an under discussed occupational zoonosis in India. Helminthologia, 50, 87–90. DOI: 10.2478/s11687-013-0113-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh, B.B., Sharma, J.K., Tuli, A., Sharma, R., Bal, M.S., Aulakh R.S. et al. 2014. Prevalence and morphological characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from Maharashtra. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 38, 36–40. DOI: 10.1007/s12639-012-0189-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stefanic, S., Shaikenov, B.S., Deplazes, P., Dinkel, A., Torgerson, P.R., Mathis, A. 2004 Polymerase chain reaction for detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus (“sheep strain”) in naturally infected dogs. Parasitology Research, 92, 347–351. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-003-1043-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thrusfield, M. 2005. Veterinary epidemiology, 3rd edition. United Kingdom. Blackwell Sciences Ltd. 626Google Scholar
  47. Tilahun, A., Terefe Y. 2013. Hydatidosis: prevalence, cyst distribution and economic significance in cattle slaughtered at Arbaminch municipality abattoir, Southern Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria, 11, 329–334. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gv.2013.11.3.2300Google Scholar
  48. Wang, Q., Huang, Y., Huang, L., Yu, W., He, W., Zhong B. et al. 2014. Review of risk factors for human echinococcosis prevalence on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China: a prospective for control options. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 3, 3. DOI: 10.1186/2049-9957-3-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. WHO 2002. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in humans and animals: a public health problem of global concern, Eckert, J., Gemmell, M.A., Meslin, F.X., Pawlowski, Z.S., (eds.) OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health, Paris, France, 1–262Google Scholar
  50. WHO 2009. Analysis of the economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in Spain. Benner, C., Carabin, H., SánchezSerrano, L., Budke, C., Carmena D. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88, 4957. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.09.066795Google Scholar
  51. WHO 2017. Echinococcosis. Fact sheet No. 377. ai] updated March 2017Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. M. Vaidya
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. J. Zende
    • 1
  • A. M. Paturkar
    • 1
  • M. L. Gatne
    • 1
  • D. G. Dighe
    • 2
  • R. N. Waghmare
    • 1
  • S. L. Moon
    • 3
  • S. S. Bhave
    • 1
  • K. G. Bengale
    • 1
  • N. V. Nikale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Public Health, Bombay Veterinary CollegeMaharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences UniversityMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Bombay Veterinary CollegeMaharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences UniversityMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary CollegeMaharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences UniversityNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations