Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 606–609 | Cite as

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii infections among horses and donkeys in Nigeria, West Africa

  • Eva BártováEmail author
  • Kamil Sedlák
  • Kateřina Kobédová
  • Marie Budíková
  • Yakubu Joel Atuman
  • Joshua Kamani


Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are considered to be a globally distributed parasites affecting wide range of warmblooded animals. Neosporosis has caused clinical illness in horses and consumption of horse meat has been epidemiologically linked to clinical toxoplasmosis in humans. This study was conducted to determine Neospora spp. and T. gondii antibodies and risk factors of infection in horses and donkeys from three states of Nigeria. A total of 144 samples were collected from clinically healthy animals (120 horses and 24 donkeys). The sera were tested for antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test, a titer ≥ 50 was considered positive. Seroprevalence data were statistically analyzed, considering the variables of gender, age, use, state, origin of breed and type of management. Antibodies to Neospora spp. and T. gondii were detected in 8% horses with titers 50 and in 24% horses with titers 50–800, respectively. Co-infection of both parasites was proved in three horses (3%). Statistical differences were found only for T. gondii seroprevalence in horses with different use, locality, origin and management (p-value ≤ 0.05). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in four (17%) of 24 donkeys with statistical difference (p-value ≤ 0.05) in animals of different use; antibodies to Neospora spp. were not proved in any of the donkeys. This is the first seroprevalence study of Neospora spp. and T. gondii in equids from Nigeria.


Equus caballus Equus asinus IFAT neosporosis toxoplasmosis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aganga A.O., Kwanashie G.G., Belino E.D. 1983. Toxoplasma antibodies in polo horses of Nigeria. International Journal of Zoonoses, 10, 155–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida J.C., Vidotto O., Ferreira E.P., Ribeiro L.P., Monqruel A.C., Vieira T.S., et al. 2017. Serosurvey of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sport horses from Paraiba state, Northeastern Brazil. Acta Parasitologica, 62, 225–227. DOI: 10.1515/ap-2017-0028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bártová E., Machačová T., Sedlák K., Budíková M., Mariani U., Veneziano V. 2015. Seroprevalence of antibodies of Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from southern Italy. Folia Parasitology, 62, 043. DOI: 10.14411/fp.2015.043Google Scholar
  4. Boughattas S., Bergaoui R., Essid R., Aoun K., Bouratbine A. 2011. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among horses in Tunisia. Parasite and Vectors 4, 218. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dubey J.P. 2004. Toxoplasmosis-water borne zoonosis. Review. Veterinary Parasitology, 126, 57–72. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dubey J.P., Porterfield M.L. 1990. Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa) in an aborted equine fetus. Journal of Parasitology, 76, 732–734. DOI: 10.2307/3282991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. El-Ghaysh A. 1998. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Egyptian donkeys using ELISA. Veterinary Parasitology, 80, 71–73. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(98)00177-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fonseca de Araujo Valenca S.R., Barreto Valenca R.M., Pinheiro Junior J.W., Feitosa de Albuquerque P.P., Souza Neto O.L., Aparecido Mota R. 2015. Risk factors of occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii among horses in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 707–711. DOI: 10.1515/ap-2015-0100Google Scholar
  9. Jakubek E.B., Lundén A., Uggla A. 2006. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora sp. infections in Swedish horses. Veterinary Parasitology, 138, 194–199. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubey J.P., Mitchell S.M., Morrow J.K., Rhyan J.C., Stewart L.M., Granstrom D.E., et al. 2003. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Toxoplasma gondii in wild horses from central Wyoming. Journal of Parasitology, 89, 716–720. DOI: 10.1645/GE-66RCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haridy F.M., Shoukry N.M., Hassan A.A., Morsy T.A. 2009. ELISAseroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in draught horses in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 39, 821–826Google Scholar
  12. Kouam M.K., Diakou A., Kanzoura V., Papadopoulos E., Gajadhar A.A., Theodoropoulos G.A. 2010. Seroepidemiological study of exposure to Toxoplasma, Leishmania, Echinococcus and Trichinella in equids in Greece and analysis of risk factors. Veterinary Parasitology, 170, 170–175. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Machačová T., Bártová E., Di Loria A., Sedlák K., Guccione J., Fulgione D., Veneziano, V., 2013. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. in donkeys from Southern Italy. Veterinary Parasitology, 198, 201–204. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.08.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Machačová T., Bártová E., Di Loria A., Sedlak K., Mariani U., Fusco G., Fulgione D., Veneziano V., Dubey J.P. 2014. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 76, 265–267. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00346-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pitel P.H., Lindsay D.S. Caure S., Romand S., Pronost S., Gargala G., Mitchell S.M., Hary C., Thulliez P., Fortier G., Ballet J.J. 2003a. Reactivity against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora by serum antibodies in healthy French horses from two farms with previous equine protozoal myeloencephalitis-like cases. Veterinary Parasitology, 111, 1–7. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00346-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pitel P.H., Romand S., Pronost S., Foucher N., Gargala G., Maillard K., Thulliez P., Collobert-Laugier C., Tainturier D., Fortier G., Ballet J.J. 2003b. Investigation of Neospora sp. antibodies in aborted mares from Normandy, France. Veterinary Parasitology, 118, 1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.10.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pomares Ch., Ajzenberg D., Bornard L., Bernardin G., Hasseine L., Dardé M.L., Marty P., 2011. Toxoplasmosis and horse meat, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, 17, 1327–1328. DOI: 10.3201/eid1707.101642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. StatSoft, Inc., 2013, STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 12. http://www.statsoft.comGoogle Scholar
  19. Tassi P. 2007. Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses. A review. Parassitologia, 49, 7–15PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Bártová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kamil Sedlák
    • 2
  • Kateřina Kobédová
    • 1
  • Marie Budíková
    • 3
  • Yakubu Joel Atuman
    • 4
  • Joshua Kamani
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and EcologyUniversity of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences BrnoBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Virology and SerologyState Veterinary Institute PragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of ScienceMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  4. 4.NVRI Outstation Investigation Laboratory BauchiNigeria
  5. 5.Parasitology DivisionNational Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) PMB 01 VomNigeria

Personalised recommendations