Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 61, Issue 4, pp 859–862 | Cite as

A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae)

  • Anna CichyEmail author
  • Elżbieta Żbikowska
Research Note


A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.


Diplodiscus subclavatus adults morphology accidental host Viviparus contectus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bertman M. 1993. Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda) and Acanthocephalus ranae (Schrank, 1788) (Acanthocephala) in grass snake — Natrix natrix (L.). Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne, 39, 405–6. (In Polish)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolek M.G., Janovy J.Jr. 2008. Alternative life cycle strategies of Megalodiscus temperatus in tadpoles and metamorphosed anurans. Parasite, 15, 396–401. DOI: 10.1051/parasite/2008 153396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Galaktionov K.V., Dobrovolskij A. (Eds.). 2003. The biology and evolution of trematodes: an essay on the biology, morphology, life cycles, transmissions, and evolution of digenetic trematodes. Springer Netherlands. pp. 592Google Scholar
  4. Grabda-Kazubska B. 1980. Observations on the life cycle of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda, Diplodiscidae). Acta Parasitológica Polonica, 27, 261–271Google Scholar
  5. Hamann MI. 1992. Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. (Trematoda, Paramphistomatidae) from Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 87, 9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Honer M.R. 1960. Diplodiscus species parasitic in the snail Paludina vivipara Lm. Nature, 187, 431–432. DOI: 10.1038/187431a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Honer M.R. 1961. Diplodiscus subclavatus (Goeze 1782) var. Paludinae, var. nov., from Paludina vivipara Lm. in the Netherlands. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 20, 489–494. DOI: 10.1007/BF00333233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson P.T.,, Dobson A., Lafferty K.D., Marcogliese D.J., Memmott J., Orlofske S.A., Poulin R., Thieltges D.W. 2010. When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 362–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jones A. 2005. Family Diplodiscidae Cohn, 1904. In: (Eds. A. Jones, R.A. Bray, D.I. Gibson), Keys to the Trematoda. Vol. 2. CABI Publishing and The Natural History Museum, Wallingford, UK, 319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaufman P.E., Wood L.A. 2015. Discovery and successful development of Cuterebra americana (Diptera: Oestridae) from an atypical host, Rattus rattus (Rodentia: Muridae), in Florida, U.S.A. Florida Entomologist, 98, 349–351. DOI: 10.1653/024.098.0154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mehlhorn H. (Ed.). 2008. Encyclopedia of Parasitology. SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 1573Google Scholar
  12. Murty A.S. 1973. Life cycle of Pseudodiplodiscoidespilai (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) from the gut of the apple snail, Pila globosa (Swainson). Journal of Parasitology, 59, 323–326. DOI: 10.2307/3278826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Odening K. 1959. Über die Diplodiscidae der Einheimischen Frösche (Trematoda, Paramphistomatata). Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 19, 54–66. DOI: 10.1007/BF00260318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oliva M.E., Alvarez C. 2011. Is a vertebrate a better host for a parasite than an invertebrate host? Fecundity of Proctoeces cf lintoni (Digenea: Fellodistomidae), a parasite of fish and gastropods in northern Chile. Parasitology Research, 109, 1731–4. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2489-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Öztürk M.O., Oguz M.C., Altunel F.N. 2000. Metazoan parasites of pike (Esox lucius L.) from Lake Uluabat, Turkey. Israel Journal of Zoology, 46, 119–130. DOI: 10.1560/1PCU-4T5V-CA77-X3TJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ray S., Pandey K.C., Agrawal N. 2015. A new species of an interesting amphistome Pseudodiplodiscoides Murty, 1970 in Bellamya bengalensis Lamarck, 1882 from water bodies near district Barabanki, U.P. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39, 536–8. DOI: 10.1007/s12639-013-0391-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Salami-Cadoux M.L., De Gregorio R. 1976. Presence of Diplodiscus subclavatus in Togo. Considerations on the genus Diplodiscus (Digenea, Paramphistomidae) in Africa and Madagascar. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, Serie A, 38, 785–796Google Scholar
  18. Samson K.S., Wilson G.I., 1974. Passage through Rouen Ducks of the metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 41, 112–113Google Scholar
  19. Sey O. 1983. Reconstruction of the systematics of the family Diplodiscidae Skrjabin, 1949 (Trematoda: Paramphistomata). Parasitologia Hungarica, 16, 63–89Google Scholar
  20. Wright C.A. (Ed.). 1971. Flukes and snails. Science of Biology Series, No. 4, Allen & Unwin Publisher, pp. 168Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Environment ProtectionNicolaus Copernicus University in ToruńToruńPoland

Personalised recommendations