Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 61, Issue 4, pp 697–706 | Cite as

Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India

  • Lachhman Das SinglaEmail author
  • Deepak Sumbria
  • Ajay Mandhotra
  • M. S. Bal
  • Paramjit Kaur


There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53–18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7–17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0–1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0–0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1–2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45–26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49–22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.


Babesia gibsoni Babesia vogeli Hepatozoon canis Ehrlichia canis Polymerase chain reaction Phylogenetic analysis 


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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lachhman Das Singla
    • 1
    Email author
  • Deepak Sumbria
    • 1
  • Ajay Mandhotra
    • 1
  • M. S. Bal
    • 1
  • Paramjit Kaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary ParasitologyCollege of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia

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