Advertisement

Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 9–20 | Cite as

Parasite communities of the elongate tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier 1819) and redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii (Gervais 1848) from Lake Turkana, Kenya: influence of host sex and size

  • Elick O. OtachiEmail author
  • Beata Szostakowska
  • Franz Jirsa
  • Christine Fellner-Frank
Article

Abstract

Fish is an important food source for an estimated 300,000 people inhabiting the shores of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Despite its large size (7560 km2) and importance, the lake remains one of the least studied in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. This study describes the parasite community of the elongate tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier, 1819) and the redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848). A total of 87 individuals (43 H. forskahlii and 44 T. zillii) were dissected and examined for parasites. Two taxa infected H. forskahlii, the dominant one being an anisakid nematode Contracaecum sp. (L3) (P = 83.7%, mean intensity (MI) = 46.0, abundance (A) = 38.5). Twelve parasite taxa were recovered from T. zillii, with metacestodes of the gryporhynchid cestode Amirthalingamia macracantha being dominant (P = 79.5, MI = 10.3, A = 8.2). This was the first report of a mixture of merocercoids and plerocercoids in the same host. Fish size was positively correlated with the major parasite infection levels, but, the prevalence of Contracaecum sp. in H. forskahlii was negatively correlated with size, probably reflecting ontogenetic shifts in habitats and diets with age. Fish sex was not a significant influencing factor, with the exception of Contracaecum sp. in H. forskahlii, where prevalence differed significantly between sexes (p<0.05), with the females having a higher prevalence than the males. We conclude that H. forskahlii had a poor parasitic community but that the infection levels with Contracaecum sp. were high. T. zillii had a rich parasite fauna, although, most parasites occurred at low intensities.

Keywords

Lake Turkana Hydrocynus forskahlii Tilapia zillii Contracaecum spp. Amirthalingamia macracantha parasites 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel-Hady O.K., Bayoumy E.M., Osman H.A. 2008. New copepodal Ergasilid parasitic on Tilapia zillii from Lake Temsah with special reference to its pathological effect. Global Veterinaria, 2, 123–129Google Scholar
  2. Abowei J.F.N., Ezekiel E.N. 2011. Trematoda, Tape Worms: Infections by Larval and Other Tape Worms; and Nematoda in African Fish (A Review). International Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 3, 352–366Google Scholar
  3. Akoll P., Konecny R., Mwanja W.W., Schiemer F. 2012a. Infection patterns of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. 1758 by two helminth species with contrasting life styles. Parasitology Research, 110, 1461–1472. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2649-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akoll P., Fioravanti M.L., Konecny R., Schiemer F. 2012b. Infection dynamics of Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.1758) from Uganda. Journal of Helminthology, 86, 302–310. DOI: 10.1017/s0022149X11000411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aloo P.A. 2002. A comparative study of helminth parasites from the fish Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis leucostictus in Lake Naivasha and Oloidien Bay, Kenya. Journal of Helminthology, 76, 95–104. DOI: 10.1079/JOH2001105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avery S. 2010. Hydrological impacts of Ethiopia’s Omo Basin on Kenya’s Lake Turkana water levels and fisheries. Final report prepared for the African Development Bank, Tunis, TunisiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagge A.M., Valtonen E.T. 1999. Development of monogenean communities on the gills of roach fry (Rutilus rutilus). Parasitology, 118, 479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bagge A.M., Poulin R., Valtonen E.T. 2004. Fish population size, and not density, as the determining factor of parasite infection: a case study. Parasitology, 128, 305–313. DOI: 10.1017/S0031182003004566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakke T.A., Cable J., Harris P.D. 2007. The Biology of Gyrodactylid Monogeneans: The “ Russian-Doll Killers.” Advances in Parasitology, 64, 162–330. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(06)64003-7Google Scholar
  10. Bayoumy M.E., El-Hady O.K.A., Osman H.A.M. 2006. Site adaptations of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae: Observations through light and scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 7, 339–342Google Scholar
  11. Bichi A.H., Ibrahim A.A. 2009. A survey of ecto and intestinal parasites of Tilapia zillii. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2, 79–82Google Scholar
  12. Bray R.A. 1974. A new genus of dilepidid cestode in Tilapia nilotica (L. 1758) and Phalacrocorax carbo (L. 1758) in Sudan. Journal of Natural History 8, 589–596. DOI: 10.1080/00222937400770501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown S.P., Renaud F., Guegan J., Thomas F. 2001. Evolution of trophic transmission in parasites: the need to reach a mating place? Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14, 815–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bush A.O., Lafferty K.D., Lotz J.M., Shostak A.W. 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al., Revisited. Journal of Parasitology, 83, 575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Campbell L.M., Osano O., Hecky R.E., Dixon D.G. 2003. Mercury in fish from three Rift Valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa. Environmental Pollution, 125, 281–286. DOI: 10.1016/S0269-7491(03)0053-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chervy L. 2002. The terminology of larval cestodes or metacestodes. Systematic parasitology, 52, 1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen A.S. 1986. Distribution and faunal associations of benthic invertebrates at Lake Turkana, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 141, 179–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dadebo E., Mengistou S. 2008. Feeding habits, ontogenetic dietary shift and some aspects of reproduction of the tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier 1819) (Pisces: Characidae) in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 123–137Google Scholar
  19. Ferrari-Hoeinghaus A.P., Takemoto R.M., Oliveira L.C., Makrakis M.C., Baumgartner G. 2006. Host-parasite relationships of monogeneans in gills of Astyanax altiparanae and Rhamdia quelen of Sao Francisco Verdadeiro River, Brazil. Parasite, 13, 315–320. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2006134315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Florio D., Gustinelli A., Caffara M., Turci F., Quaglio F., Konecny R., Nikowitz T., Wathuta E.M., Magana A., Otachi E., Matolla G.K., Warugu H.W., Liti D., Mbaluka R., Thiga B., Munguti J., Akoll P., Mwanja W., Asaminew K., Tadesse Z., Fioravanti M.L. 2009. Veterinary and public health aspects in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) aquaculture in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. (Aspetti veterinari e di sanità pubblica nell’allevamento della tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) in Kenya, Uganda ed Etiopia). Ittiopatologia, 6, 51–93Google Scholar
  21. FOLT. 2009. Impacts of Gilgel Gibe III dam in the Turkana region. A report prepared by the Friends of Lake Turkana. Lodwar, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  22. Froese R., Pauly D. 2013. (Eds.) Fishbase. World Wide Web publication. www.fishbase.org. Version (04/2013)Google Scholar
  23. Getabu A., Gichuki J., Abila R., Ojwang O. 2007. An overview of the Lake Turkana environment and fisheries. In:(Eds. W.O. Ojwang, J. Gichuki, A. Getabu, E. Wakwabi, R. Abila) Lake Turkana: Fisheries, people and the future intervention for economic benefit” KMFRI/LTRP Technical Report 1. Kenya Marine and Fisheries research Institute, Kisumu Centre andTurkana Station, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  24. Goselle O.N., Shir G.I., Udeh E.O., Abelau M., Imandeh G.N. 2008. Helminth parasites of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii at Lamingo Dam, Jos, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 3, 23–28Google Scholar
  25. Haack B., Messina J. 1997. Monitoring the Omo River Delta in East Africa using remote sensing. Earth Observation Magazine (EOM) 6, 18–22Google Scholar
  26. Hassan E.A., Soliman M.F.M., Ghobashy A.F. 2012. Some factors affecting metacercarial infections in Tilapia zillii. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hathaway T., Amicucci C. 2010. Fighting for Lake Turkana. Why Kenyan communities are resisting Gibe 3 Dam. A report from the field. Campagna per la riforma della Banca Mondiale and International Rivers. http://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/fighting-for-lake-turkana-3937. accessed 01.04.2014,1437hrsGoogle Scholar
  28. Hickley P., Bailey R., Harper D.M., Kundu R., Muchiri M., North R., Taylor A. 2002. The status and future of the Lake Naivasha fishery, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 488, 181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ibrahim M.M. 2012. Variation in parasite infracommunities of Tilapia zillii in relation to some biotic and abiotic factors. International Journal of Zoological Research, 8, 59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ILEC. 2013. World lakes database. Lake Turkana. www.ilec.or.jp/database/afr/afri-20.html [Accessed January 13, 2013]Google Scholar
  31. Jirsa F., Konecny R., Frank C., Sures B. 2011. The parasite community of the nase Chondrostoma nasus (L. 1758) from Austrian rivers. Journal of Helminthology, 85, 255–262. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X10000490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kadlec D., Simkova A., Gelnar M. 2003. The microhabitat distribution of two Dactylogyrus species parasitizing the gills of the barbel Barbus barbus. Journal of Helminthology, 77, 317–325. DOI: 10.1079/JOH2003183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khalil L.F. 1971. Checklist of the Helminth parasites of African freshwater fishes. Technical Communication No. 42 of the Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology St. Albans. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.England. 80 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Khalil F., Polling L. 1997. Checklist of the Helminth parasites of African freshwater fishes. 2nd edition. University of the North, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  35. Klein S.L. 2000. The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection: from genes to behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 24, 627–638. DOI: 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00027-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kolding J. 1989. The fish resources of Lake Turkana and their environment. Cand. Scient. Degree Thesis. University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  37. Koskivaara M., Valtonen E.T., Prost M. 1991. Dactylogyrids on the gills of roach in Central Finland: features of infection and species composition. International Journal of Parasitology, 21, 47–55. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7519(91)90061-BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuchta R., Burianova A., Jirku M., Chambrier A., Oros M., Brabec J., Scholz T. 2012. Bothriocephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) of freshwater fish in Africa, including erection of Kirstenella n.gen. and description of Tetracampos martinae n. sp. Zootaxa, 3309, 1–35Google Scholar
  39. Le Roux L.E., Avenant-Oldewage A. 2010. Checklist of the fish parasitic genus Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea), including its cosmopolitan distribution and host species. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 35, 21–36. DOI: 10.2989/16085914.2010.466632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Le Roux L.E., Avenant-Oldewage A., van der Walt F.C. 2011. Aspects of the ecology of Cichlidogyrus philander collected from Pseudocrenilabrus philander philander from the Padda dam, Guateng, South Africa. African Zoology, 46, 103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis D.S.C. 1974. The food and feeding habits of Hydrocynus forskahlii Cuvier and Hydrocynus brevis Gunther in Lake Kainji, Nigeria. Journal of Fish Biology, 6, 349–363. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1974.tb04552.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lom J., Dykovà I. 1992. Developments in aquaculture and fisheries science volume 26: Protozoans parasites of fishes. Elsevier Science Publishers. Amsterdam-London-New York-Tokyo. 316 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Madanire-Moyo G.N., Matla M.M., Olivier P.A.S., Luus-Powell W.J. 2010. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of monogeneans on the gills of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) from two lakes of the Limpopo River System, South Africa. Journal of Helminthology, 85, 146–152. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X10000301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Magurran A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its measurement. Chapman and Hall. London. 192 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moravec F., Charo-Karisa H., Jirků M. 2009a. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya, including two new species of Philometra and erection of Afrophilometra gen. n. Folia Parasitologica, 56, 41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moravec F., Charo-Karisa H., Jirku, M. 2009b. Mexiconema africanum sp. n. (Nematoda: Daniconematidae) from the catfish Auchenoglanis occidentalis from Lake Turkana, Kenya. Systematic Parasitology, 85, 55–63. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1518-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moravec F., Charo-Karisa H., Jirků M. 2013. The morphology and systematics of Rhabdochona paski Baylis, 1928 (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae), a widespread parasite of freshwater fishes in Africa. Systematic Parasitology, 85, 55–63. DOI: 10.1007/s11230-012-9403-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morenikeji O.A., Adepeju A.I. 2009. Helminth communities in Cichlids in natural and man-made ponds in South-West Nigeria. Researcher, 1, 84–92Google Scholar
  49. Odada E.O., Olago D.O., Bugenyi F., Kulindwa K., Karimumuryango J., West K., Ntiba M., Wandiga S., Aloo-Obudho P., Achola P. 2003. Environmental assessment of the East African Rift Valley lakes. Aquatic Sciences, 65, 254–271. DOI: 10.1007/s00027-003-0638-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ojwang W.O., Gichuki J., Getabu A., Wakwabi E., Abila, R. (Eds.). 2007. Lake Turkana: Fisheries, people and the future intervention for economic benefit” KMFRI/LTRP Technical Report 1. Kenya Marine and Fisheries research Institute, Kisumu Centre andTurkana Station, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  51. Ojwang W.O., Gichuki J., Getabu A., Wakwabi E., Abila, R. (Eds.). 2008. Lake Turkana: Fisheries, people and the future intervention for economic benefit” KMFRI/LTRP Technical Report 2. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Kisumu Centre andTurkana Station, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  52. Okeyo D.O. 2003. Taxonomy, common names and distribution of fish in the eastern arm of the Rift Valley drainage, Kenya. In:(Eds. M. L. D. Palmares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily, D. Pauly) Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences ACP-EU Fisheries Research Reports. Brussels. France. 281 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Olofintoye L.K. 2006. Parasitofauna in Some Freshwater Fish Species in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 359–362. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2006.359.362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Olurin K., Okafor J., Alade A., Asiru R., Ademiluwa J., Owonifari K., Oronaye, O. 2012. Helminth Parasites of Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zillii (Pisces: Cichlidae) from River Oshun, Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 3, 50–55Google Scholar
  55. Otachi E.O., Magana A.E.M., Jirsa F., Fellner-Frank C. 2014. Parasites of commercially important fish from Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya. Parasitology Research, 113, 1057–1067. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-013-3741-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Paperna I. 1980. Parasites, infections and diseases of fish in Africa. CIFA Technical paper No. 7. FAO Publication. Rome, Italy. 216 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Paperna I. 1996. Parasites, infections and diseases of fish in Africa. CIFA Technical paper No. 31. FAO Publication. Rome, Italy. 220 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Pariselle A., Euzet L. 1995. Gill parasites of the genus Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Tilapia guineensis (Bleeker, 1862), with descriptions of six new species. Systematic Parasitology, 30, 187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pariselle A., Euzet L. 1998. Five new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Tilapia brevimanus, T. buttikoferi and T. cessiana from Guinea, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone (West Africa). Folia Parasitologica, 45, 275–282Google Scholar
  60. Pariselle A., Euzet L. 2009. Systematic revision of dactylogyridean parasites (Monogenea) from cichlid fishes in Africa, the Levant and Madagascar. Zoosytema, 31, 849–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Paterson R.A., Lal A., Dal M., Townsend C.R., Poulin R., Tompkins D.M. 2013. Relative competence of native and exotic fish hosts for two generalist native trematodes. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 2, 136–143. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.03.004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Přikrylová I., Radim B., Gelnar M. 2012. Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. 1758) and Redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais 1848) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in the Lake Turkana, Kenya. Acta Parasitologica, 57, 122–130. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-012-0017-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Poulin R. 1996. Sexual Inequalities in Helminth Infections: A cost of Being a Male? The American Naturalist, 147, 287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ramadan H.H. 1991. Effect of Host Species, Sex, Length, Diet and Different Seasons on the Parasitic Infection of Tilapia Fish in Lake Manzalah. Journal of the Faculty of Marine Science, 2, 81–91Google Scholar
  65. Rubio-Godoy M., Munoz-Cordova G., Garduno-Lugo M., Salazar-Ulloa M., Mercado-Vidal G. 2012. Microhabitat use, not temperature, regulates intensity of Gyrodactylus cichlidarum long-term infection on farmed tilapia — Are parasites evading competition or immunity? Veterinary Parasitology, 183, 305–316. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rushton-Mellor S.K. 1994. The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura) in Africa: two new species, A. fryeri and A. gracilis, the previously undescribed male of A. brachypeltis Fryer and the identity of the male described as A. ambloplitesWilson. Systematic Parasitology, 28, 23–31. DOI: 10.1007/BF00006907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schäperclaus, W. 1990. Fischkrankheiten. Akademie Verlag. Berlin. GermanyGoogle Scholar
  68. Scholz T., Bray R.A., Kuchta R., Repova R. 2004. Larvae of gryporhynchid cestodes (Cyclophyllidea) from fish: a review. Folia Parasitologica, 51, 131–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shamsi S., Aghazadeh-Meshgi M. 2011. Morphological and genetic characterization of selected Contracaecum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) larvae in Iran. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 10, 356–361Google Scholar
  70. Shamsi S., Gasser R., Beveridge, I. 2008. Contracaecum pyripapillatum n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and a description of C. multipapillatum (von Drasche, 1882) from the Australian pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus. Parasitology Research, 103, 1031–1039. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-1088-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shamsi S., Norman R., Gasser R. 2009. Redescription and genetic characterization of selected Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from various hosts in Australia. Parasitology Research, 104, 1507–1525. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1357-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Szostakowska B., Fagerholm H. 2007. Molecular Identification of Two Strains of Third-Stage Larvae of Contracaecum rudolphii Sensu Lato (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Fish in Poland. Journal of Parasitology, 93, 961–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vanhove M.P.M., Snoeks J., Volckaert F.A.M., Huyse T. 2011. First description of monogenean parasites in Lake Tanganyika: the cichlid Simochromis diagramma (Teleostei, Cichlidae) harbours a high diversity of Gyrodactylus species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). Parasitology, 138, 364–380. DOI: 10.1017/S0031182010001356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Winemiller K.O., Kelso-Winemiller L.C. 1994. Comparative ecology of the African pike, Hepsetus odoe, and tigerfish, Hydrocynus forskahlii, in the Zambezi River floodplain. Journal of Fish Biology, 45, 211–225. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1994.tb 01301.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yamada F.H., Santos L.N., Takemoto R.M. 2011. Gill ectoparasites assemblages of two non-native Cichla populations (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Brazilian reservoirs. Journal of Helminthology, 85, 185–191. DOI:10.1017/S0022149X10000441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yuretich R.F., Cerling T.E. 1983. Hydrogeochemistry of Lake Turkana, Kenya: mass balance and mineral reactions in an alkaline lake. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 47, 1099–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhu X., D’amelio S., Paggi L., Gasser R.B. 2000. Assessing sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA within and among members of the Contracaecum osculatum complex (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae). Parasitology Research, 86, 677–683. DOI: 10.1007/PL00008551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zuk M., McKean K.A. 1996. Sex differences in parasite infections: patterns and processes. International Journal of Parasitology, 26, 1009–1024. DOI:10.1016/S0020-7519(96)80001-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elick O. Otachi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Beata Szostakowska
    • 3
  • Franz Jirsa
    • 4
    • 5
  • Christine Fellner-Frank
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Integrative ZoologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Biological Sciences DepartmentEgerton UniversityEgertonKenya
  3. 3.Department of Tropical ParasitologyMedical University of GdanskGdyniaPoland
  4. 4.Institute of Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  5. 5.Dept. of ZoologyUniversity of JohannesburgAuckland ParkSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations