, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 157–169 | Cite as

Laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic insulinomas: an update

  • Chrysanthi AggeliEmail author
  • Alexander M. Nixon
  • Ioannis Karoumpalis
  • Gregory Kaltsas
  • George N. Zografos


Insulinomas are the most common functioning neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, occurring in almost 1–4 per 1 million persons each year. In contrast to other pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, they are usually benign and solitary at the time of diagnosis. Due to their benign nature, surgical excision is the treatment of choice, with excellent long-term results. The introduction of minimally invasive techniques in the surgical treatment of insulinoma has been gaining popularity due to shorter length of hospital stay and better cosmetic results, with serious complications being comparable to those of open surgery. Preoperative localization is of paramount importance in the determination of the appropriate surgical approach. Many invasive and non-invasive methods exist for localization of an insulinoma. A combination of these modalities is usually adequate to preoperatively localize the vast majority of tumors. Laparoscopic ultrasound is mandatory to localize these tumors intraoperatively. Despite extensive experience in highly specialized centers producing encouraging results, no randomized trials have been realized to conclusively validate these case series, this partly due to the rarity of insulinoma in the population. In this article we present the current state of laparoscopic management of insulinoma delineating still unanswered issues and we underscore some of the technical details of the most common laparoscopic procedures employed.

Key words

EUS Enucleation Insulinoma Pancreatectomy 


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Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chrysanthi Aggeli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander M. Nixon
    • 1
  • Ioannis Karoumpalis
    • 2
  • Gregory Kaltsas
    • 3
  • George N. Zografos
    • 1
  1. 1.Third Department of SurgeryAthens General Hospital “Georgios Gennimatas”AthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of GastroenterologyAthens General Hospital “Georgios Gennimatas”AthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of PathophysiologyLaiko HospitalAthensGreece

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