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Hormones

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 383–391 | Cite as

Predictors of post-traumatic pituitary failure during long-term follow-up

  • Orsolya Nemes
  • Noemi Kovacs
  • Endre Czeiter
  • Peter Kenyeres
  • Zita Tarjanyi
  • Laszlo Bajnok
  • Andras Buki
  • Tamas Doczi
  • Emese Mezosi
Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

There is increasing awareness among physicians of the risks of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced hypopituitarism. We have assessed the prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic hypopituitarism by analyzing the TBI database of the University of Pecs.

DESIGN

This consecutive analysis of 126 TBI survivors (mean age: 42.4 years, average follow-up time: 48 months) revealed that 60.3% had severe and 39.7% moderately severe trauma based on GCS score. Subdural hemorrhage (29.3%) and diffuse injury (27%) were the most common types of injury; 17.5% of patients suffered basal skull fractures.

RESULTS

The prevalence of major anterior pituitary failure was 57.1%. Occurrence of total and partial growth hormone deficiency (GHD/GHI) was 39.7%, while LH/FSH, TSH and ACTH deficiencies were less frequent, namely 23.0%, 16.7% and 10.3%, respectively. Of the 82 patients with multiple endocrine evaluations, 31.7% presented significant changes in hormonal deficiencies during the follow-up period: new hormone deficiencies developed in 16 patients, while hormonal disturbances resolved in 10 subjects. Looking for factors influencing the prevalence of pituitary dysfunction, endocrine results were analyzed in relation to age, gender, GCS scores, injury types, basal skull fracture, ventricular drain insertion and necessity of neurosurgical intervention. All hormonal disturbances were more prevalent after severe trauma (OR: 3.25, p = 0.002), while the need for surgery proved to be an independent determinant of multiple and GH deficits (OR: 3.72 (p = 0.004) and 9.33 (p = 0.001)).

CONCLUSION

Post-traumatic hypopituitarism is common and may evolve or resolve over time. Victims of severe TBI and/or patients who have undergone neurosurgical intervention for head injury are the most prone to post-traumatic hypopituitarism.

Key words

Traumatic brain injury Hypopituitarism GCS Growth hormone deficiency 

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Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orsolya Nemes
    • 1
  • Noemi Kovacs
    • 2
  • Endre Czeiter
    • 2
  • Peter Kenyeres
    • 1
  • Zita Tarjanyi
    • 1
  • Laszlo Bajnok
    • 1
  • Andras Buki
    • 2
  • Tamas Doczi
    • 2
  • Emese Mezosi
    • 1
  1. 1.1st Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of PecsPecsHungary
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of PecsPecsHungary

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