, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 543–551 | Cite as

A systematic review and meta-analysis of weight status among adolescents in Cyprus: scrutinizing the data for the years 2000–2010

  • Maria G. Grammatikopoulou
  • Eleni P. Kotanidou
  • Anastasia G. Markaki
  • Charilaos Stylianou
  • Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
  • Maria Tsigga
  • Maria HassapidouEmail author
Research paper



The aim of the present study was to evaluate by pooled and sensitivity analyses all available data on adolescent overweight/obesity in Cyprus.


A thorough literature search determined the studies to be examined using Cypriot adolescent samples aged 10–18 years old, with weight status in each sex classified according to the IOTF criteria, published between the years 2001–2011. Eight studies were retrieved, but three fulfilled the criteria for the sensitivity analyses.


The pooled prevalence of obesity was 9.8% in boys (n=6081). The pooled analysis classified 6.1% (n=3886) of girls as obese, whereas a higher prevalence was observed by the sensitivity analysis 6.4% (n = 1956, p ≤0.001). The boys’ prevalence of overweight was 19.3% and the girls’ 17.1%. Between sexes, boys demonstrated a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight (p ≤0.001 for both). The cumulative analyses demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity until the year 2005 and thereafter a plateauing in boys and a slight decrease in girls in a non-linear manner.


Approximately 1/3 of adolescent boys and 1/4 of adolescent girls in Cyprus were overweight/obese during the previous decade.

Key Words

Abdominal obesity Adolescence BMI IOTF Obese Obesity Overweight Teenagers 


  1. 1.
    Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R, 2004 Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 5: 4–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fonseca H, Matos MG, Guerra A, Pedro JG, 2009 Are overweight adolescents at higher risk of engaging in unhealthy weight-control behaviours? Acta Paediatr 98: 847–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavazos-Rehg PA, Krauss MJ, Spitznagel EL, Schootman M, Cottier LB, Bierut LJ, 2010 Associations between multiple pregnancies and health risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents. J Adolesc Health 47: 600–603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burt Solorzano CM, McCartney CR, 2010 Obesity and the pubertal transition in girls and boys. Reproduction 140: 399–410.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Henauw S, Verbestel V, Mårild S, 2011 The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention programme: a new model for childhood obesity prevention in Europe? Int J Obes (London) 35: Suppl 1: 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sawa SC, Chadjioannou M, Tornaritis MJ, 2007 Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity: Cyprus national findings. Obes Rev 8S2: 37–45.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Young SS, Bang H, 2004 The file-drawer problem, revisited. Science 306: 1133–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization, 2002 Adolescent friendly health services. An agenda for change. [16 April 2014]: Available from:
  9. 9.
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH, 2000 Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320: 1240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cole TJ, Flegal KM, Nicholls D, Jackson AA, 2007 Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 335: 194–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lien N, Henriksen HB, Nymoen LL, Wind M, Klepp KI, 2010 Availability of data assessing the prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among European adolescents. Public Health Nutr 13: 1680–1687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D, et al, The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of non-randomized studies in meta-analyses. [16 April 2014]: Available from:
  13. 13.
    Kotanidou EP, Grammatikopoulou MG, Spiliotis BE, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Tsigga M, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, 2013 Ten-Year obesity and overweight prevalence in Greek children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 2001–2010 data. Hormones (Athens) 12: 537–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG, 2003 Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327: 557–560.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen JJ, Yu CB, Du WB, Li LJ, 2011 Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in HIV-infected patients: a meta-analysis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 10: 122–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsigga M, Grammatikopoulou MG, 2012 Assessing the silent epidemic of malnutrition in Palestinian preschool children. J Epidemiol Glob Health 2: 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group, 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6: e1000097.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sawa SC, Kourides Y, Tornaritis M, Epiphaniou-Savva M, Chadjigeorgiou C, Kafatos A, 2002 Obesity in children and adolescents in Cyprus. Prevalence and predisposing factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26: 1036–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sawa SC, Tornaritis MJ, Chadjigeorgiou C, Kourides YA, Siamounki M, Kafatos A, 2008 Prevalence of overweight and obesity among 11-year-old children in Cyprus, 1997–2003. Int J Pediatr Obes 3: 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lazarou C, Panagiotakos DB, Panayiotou G, Matalas AL, 2008 Overweight and obesity in preadolescent children and their parents in Cyprus: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors — the CYKIDS study. Obes Rev 9: 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christaki M, 2006 Correlation between childhood obesity and overweight with possible predisposing factors in a Cypriot sample of 11 year-olds. MSc Thesis, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lavithi D, 2007 Assessment of the dietary habits of adolescents aged 12–17 years old from Cyprus. MSc Thesis, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Photiou A, 2008 Somatic development and body composition of 6- to 18-year-old boys — The first Cypriot growth study. PhD Thesis, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Loucaides CA, Jago R, 2008 Differences in physical activity by gender, weight status and travel mode to school in Cypriot children. Prev Med 47: 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loucaides CA, Jago R, Theophanous M, 2010 Prevalence and correlates of active travelling to school among adolescents in Cyprus. Cent Eur J Public Health 18: 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lobstein T, Frelut M-L, 2003 Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe. Obes Rev 4: 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lazarou C, Soteriades ES, 2010 Children’s physical activity, TV watching and obesity in Cyprus: the CYKIDS study. Eur J Public Health 20: 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lazarou C, Panagiotakos DB, Kouta C, Matalas AL, 2009 Dietary and other lifestyle characteristics of Cypriot school children: results from the nationwide CYKIDS study. BMC Public Health 9: 147.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lazarou C, Kalavana T, 2009 Urbanization influences dietary habits of Cypriot children: the CYKIDS study. Int J Public Health 54: 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mirkopoulou D, Grammatikopoulou MG, Gerothanasi K, Tagka A, Stylianou C, Hassapidou M, 2010 Metabolic indices, energy and macronutrient intake according to weight status in a rural sample of 17-year-old adolescents. Rural Remote Health 10: 1513.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hodgkin E, Hamlin MJ, Ross JJ, Peters F, 2010 Obesity, energy intake and physical activity in rural and urban New Zealand children. Rural Remote Health 10: 1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lien N, Henriksen HB, Nymoen LL, Wind M, Klepp KI, 2010 Availability of data assessing the prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among European adolescents. Public Health Nutr 13: 1680–1687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    James PT, Leach R, Kalamara E, Shayeghi M, 2001 The Worldwide Obesity Epidemic. Obes Res 9: Suppl 4: 228–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lobstein T, 2006 Comment: Preventing child obesity — an art and a science. Obes Rev 7: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marshall WA, Tanner JM, 1969 Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child 44: 291–303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marshall WA, Tanner JM, 1970 Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Arch Dis Child 45: 13–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria G. Grammatikopoulou
    • 1
  • Eleni P. Kotanidou
    • 2
  • Anastasia G. Markaki
    • 3
  • Charilaos Stylianou
    • 4
  • Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
    • 2
  • Maria Tsigga
    • 1
  • Maria Hassapidou
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition & DieteticsAlexander Technological Educational InstituteThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.4th Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of MedicineAristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition & DieteticsTechnological Educational Institute of CreteCreteGreece
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsPaphos General HospitalPaphosCyprus

Personalised recommendations