Effects of a Group-Based 8-Week Multicomponent Cognitive Training on Cognition, Mood and Activities of Daily Living among Healthy Older Adults: A One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Cognitive interventions have the potential to enhance cognition among healthy older adults. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of cognitive training (CT) on mood and activities of daily living (ADL).
To assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent CT using a training program of executive functions, attention, memory and visuospatial functions (TEAM-V Program) on cognition, mood and instrumental ADL.
A randomized, single-blinded, treatment-as-usual controlled trial.
Geriatric clinic in Bangkok, Thailand.
77 nondemented community-dwelling older adults (mean age 65.7±4.3 years).
The CT (TEAM-V) program or the treatmentas- usual controlled group. The TEAM-V intervention was conducted over 5 sessions, with a 2-week interval between each session. Of 77 participants randomized (n=40 the TEAM-V program; n=37 the control group).
The Thai version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Thai version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and The Chula ADL were used to assess at baseline, 6 months and 1 year.
Compared with the control arm, the TEAM-V Program was associated with reducing anxiety (P = 0.004). Compared with the baseline, participants receiving the TEAM-V Program were associated with significantly improved general cognition (MoCA, P < 0.001), immediate recall (word recall task, P = 0.01), retrieval and retention of memory process (word recognition task, P = 0.01), attention (number cancellation part A, P < 0.001) and executive function (maze test, P = 0.02) at 1 year. No training effects on depression (P = 0.097) and IADL (P = 0.27) were detected.
The TEAM-V Program was effective in reducing anxiety. Even though, the program did not significantly improve cognition, depression and ADL compared with the control group, global cognition, memory, attention and executive function improved in the intervention group compared with baseline. Further studies incorporating a larger sample size, longitudinal follow-up and higher-intensity CT should be conducted.
Key wordsKey words Activities of daily livings cognitive training mood older adults
The authors would like to express our gratitude to the participants and PMK aging team in Geriatric Clinic, Phramongkutklao Hospital. We also would like to thank the Institute of Geriatric Medicine for allowing the research team to be a part of the larger study and conducted project activities in the Central region of Thailand. We also thank Ms. Worarachanee Imjaijitt for statistical analysis.
The research project was partially supported by The Thai Health Promotion Foundation. The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the preparation of the manuscript; or in the review or approval of the manuscript.
The TEAM-V study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Royal Thai Army Medical Department Ethics Committee as instituted by the Declaration of Helsinski.
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