Predictors of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage
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Cardiac abnormalities that have been reported after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) include the release of cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiographic changes, and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction after SAH remain controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LV regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) after SAH and to quantify the independent effects of specific demographic and clinical variables in predicting the development of RWMA.
Three hundred patients hospitalized with SAH were prospectively studied with serial echocardiography. The primary outcome measure was the presence of RWMA. The predictor variables included the admission Hunt & Hess grade, age, gender, cardiac risk factors, aneurysm location, plasma catecholamine levels, cardiac troponin I (cTi) level, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and phenylephrine dose. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with adjustment for serial measurements, reporting olds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
In this study, 817 echocardiograms were analysed. RWMA were detected in 18% of those studied. The prevalence of RWMA in patients with Hunt & Hess grades 3–5 was 35%. Among patients with a peak cTi level grater than 1.0 μg/L, 65% had RWMA. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high Hunt & Hess grade (OR 4.22 for grade 3–5 versus grade 1–2, p=0.046), a cTi level greater than 1.0 μg/L (OR 10.47, p=0.001), a history of prior cocaine or amphetamine use (OR 5.50, p=0.037), and higher HR (OR 1.34 per 10 bpm increase, p=0.024) were predictive of RWMA.
RWMA were frequent after SAH. High-grade SAH, an elevation in cTi levels, a history of prior stimulant drug use, and tachycardia are independent predictors of RWMA.
Key wordsCentral nervous system subarachnoid hemorrhage cerebrovascular disorders echocardiography regional wall motion abnormality left ventricle cardiac dysfunction
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