Molecular Biotechnology

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 25–33 | Cite as

Biolistic transformation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Progress and perspectives


Gene transfer systems have proved effective for the transformation of a range of organisms for both fundamental and applied studies. Biolistic transformation is a powerful method for the gene transfer into various organisms and tissues that have proved recalcitrant to more conventional means. For fungi, the biolistic approach is particularly effective where protoplasts are difficult to obtain and/or the organisms are difficult to culture. This is particularly applicable to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, being as they are obligate symbionts that can only be propagated in association with intact plants or root explants. Furthermore, these fungi are aseptate and protoplasts cannot be released. Recent advancements in gene transformation systems have enabled the use of biolistic technology to introduce foreign DNA linked to molecular markers into these fungi. In this review we discuss the development of transformation strategies for AM fungi by biolistics and highlight the areas of this technology which require further development for the stable transformation of these elusive organisms.

Index Entries

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis transformation particle bombardment 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant and Crop Science DivisionScottish Agricultural CollegeEdinburgh, West LothianScotland, UK

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