Background. Continuous enteral feeding, the old-new therapeutic modality in the treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis and those with complications is considered to bypass the cephalic, the gastric, and (at least in part) the intestinal phase of pancreatic secretion. The aim of this study was to test the GI hormonal changes and gallbladder motility during CJF in patients with pancreatic pseudocysts following acute pancreatitis, with or without octreotide pretreatment.
Patients and Methods. In 15 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts, an 8-French (8F) nasojejunal catheter was positioned into the jejunum distal to the ligament of Treitz during duodenoscopy. On test d 1, blood samples were taken for CCK, gastrin, insulin-like immunoreactivity (IRI), glucagon, and glucose measurements prior to and at 20, 40, 60, and 120 min following jejunal saline infusion at a rate of 2 mL/min. The gallbladder volumes were determined simultaneously by ultrasonography. On test d 2, CJF (175 kcal/h) was started by the same route and at the same infusion rate. Analogous measurements were performed as indicated above. On test d 3, 100 µg of octreotide was administered subcutaneously and the previous procedure was repeated. The plasma level of CCK and glucagon and the serum levels of IRI and gastrin were determined by bioassay and radioimmunoassay (RIA), respectively.
Results. Significant changes in hormone levels were not observed during jejunal saline perfusion. However, the levels of CCK (5.7±0.9 pmol), gastrin (10.6±1.3 pmol/L), IRI (27.2±5.8 µIU/mL), glucagon (322.8±32.4 pg/mL), and glucose (5.8±1.0 mmol/L) were significantly increased at 20 min during CJF vs the saline controls (2.0±0.3 pmol, 6.8±1.1 pmol/L, 7.8±0.4 µIU/mL, 172.8±33.4 pg/mL, and 4.5±0.5 mmol/L, respectively) and remained elevated at 40, 60, and 120 min. Octreotide pretreatment eliminated the increases in CCK, gastrin, IRI, and glucagon levels observed during CJF alone. The significant decrease in gallbladder volume during CJF was also prevented by octreotide pretreatment.
Conclusion. Continuous jejunal feeding (CJF) elicited significant increases in gastrointestinal (GI) regulatory hormone (cholecystokinin [CCK], gastrin, IRI, and glucagon) levels and evoked a consecutive gallbladder contraction. These biological responses are eliminated by octreotide pretreatment. Further clinical studies are needed to assess the eventual therapeutic effect of octreotide during CJF in patients with pancreatic pseudocyst.
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