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Endocrine Pathology

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 253–277 | Cite as

Cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane synthase in non-endocrine and endocrine tumors: A review

  • Onder Onguru
  • Mary B. Casey
  • Sabine Kajita
  • Nobuki Nakamura
  • Ricardo V. Lloyd
Review

Abstract

Prostaglandins (PG) are members of a large group of hormonally active fatty acids derived from free fatty acids. They are formed from arachidonic acid—the major PG precursor. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 are the rate-limiting steps in PG synthesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in many human non-endocrine and endocrine tumors including colon, breast, prostate, brain, thyroid, and pituitary. COX-2 has an important role in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thromboxane synthase (TS) catalyzes the synthesis of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is derived from arachidonic acid and prostaglandin H2 and is a vasoconstrictor and inducer of platelet aggregation. TXA2 stimulates tumor growth and spread of some tumors and TS appears to have a critical role in tumorigenesis in some organ systems.

In this review, we examine the role of COX-2 and TS in various non-endocrine tumors, especially colon, breast, prostate, and brain as well as in endocrine tumors. The accumulating evidence points to an increasingly important role of COX-2 and TS in tumor progression and metastasis.

Key Words

Cyclooxygenase-2 thromboxane synthase colon tumor breast tumor prostate tumor brain tumor thyroid tumor pituitary tumor 

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Onder Onguru
    • 1
  • Mary B. Casey
    • 1
  • Sabine Kajita
    • 1
  • Nobuki Nakamura
    • 1
  • Ricardo V. Lloyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo Clinic College of MedicineRochester

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