Endocrine pathology in translational medicine: An overview of current and future prospects
- 27 Downloads
With applications of recent development of molecular techniques, endocrine pathology, as a scientific discipline, has been expanding its field to cover not only the pathologic diagnosis but also molecular mechanisms of hormone production and secretion as well as implementation for appropriate therapeutic approaches. In this review, the discussion includes molecular markers for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors focusing on various proteins for the transport of secretory granules. MIB-1, proliferative indices, is particularly useful to access biologic activities of NE tumors. The specific hormone production relies on the expression of combination of transcription factors and proteolytic digestion (processing) of prohormones by specific enzymes, prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2. Inappropriate processing of prohormones sometimes are related to neoplastic conditions. Endocrine therapeutics have been focusing on the compensation of deficient hormones by transplanting specific hormone producing cells including embryonic stem (ES) cells. The endocrine pathology is expected to play a major role in translational medicine.
Key WordsEndocrine pathology translational research hormone production transcription factors gene therapeutics
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Hocker M, John M, Anagnostopoulos J, Buhr HJ, Solimena M, Gasnier B, Henry JP, Wang TC, Wiedenmann B. Molecular dissection of regulated secretory pathways in human gastric enterochromaffin-like cells: an immunohistochemical analysis. Histochem Cell Biol 112:205–214, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Solcia E, Kloppel G, Sobin LH. WHO International histological classification of tumors: histological typing of endocrine tumors, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2000.Google Scholar
- 19.Motoyoshi S, Shirotani T, Araki E, Sakai K, Kaneko K, Motoshima H, Yoshizato K, Shirakami A, Kishikawa H, Shichiri M. Cellular characterization of pituitary adenoma cell line (AtT20 cell) transfected with insulin, glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase genes: insulin secretion in response to physiological concentrations of glucose. Diabetologia 41:1492–1501, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar