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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 233–258 | Cite as

Ion channels and transporters involved in cell volume regulation and sensor mechanisms

  • Yasunobu Okada
Review Article

Abstract

All animal cell types have an appropriate volume. Even under physiological conditions of constant extracellular osmolarity, cells must regulate their volume. Cell volume is subjected to alterations because of persistent physicochemical osmotic load resulting from Donnan-type colloid osmotic pressure and of cell activity-associated changes in intracellular osmolarity resulting from osmolyte transport and metabolism. The strategy adopted by animal cells for coping with volume regulation on osmotic perturbation is to activate transport pathways, including channels and transporters, mainly for inorganic osmolytes to drive water flow. Under normotonic conditions, cells undergo volume regulation by pump-mediated mechanisms. Under anisotonic conditions, volume regulation occurs by additional channel/transporter-mediated mechanisms. Cell volume regulation is also attained through adjustment of intracellular levels not only of inorganic but also of organic osmolytes with changing the expression of their transporters or regulation of metabolism. In cell volume regulation mechanism, several “volume sensors” are thought to be involved. A volume-sensitive Cl channel has lately attracted considerable attention in this regard.

Index Entries

Cell volume regulation Boyle-van't Hoff law Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium pump-leak balance mechanism double Donnan mechanism channel transporter regulatory volume increase regulatory volume decrease volume sensor 

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell Physiology, National Institute for Physiological SciencesThe Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)OkazakiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Life SciencesThe Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)OkazakiJapan

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