Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 87, Issue 1–3, pp 183–190 | Cite as

Association of different zinc concentrations combined with a fixed caffeine dose on plasma and tissue caffeine and zinc levels in the rat

  • Malektaj Yazdani
  • Sheila Gottschalk
  • Kazuya Ide
  • Tetsuo Nakamoto


Because caffeine and tissue levels of Zn are closely related, the objectives of this study were to determine the changes in plasma caffeine levels over a period of 5 h when different concentrations of Zn combined with a fixed concentration of caffeine were injected into the femoral vein of rats and to determine the relationship between tissue levels of caffeine and Zn at 5 h postinjection. Rats were divided into three groups: group 1, 220 µg caffeine; group 2,220 µg caffeine + 8 µg Zn/g body weight (BW); group 3, 220 µg caffeine +16 µg Zn/g BW. Blood from groups 1 and 3 was collected at 3 min, 30 min, 1h, 3h, and 5h to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine. All groups were killed at 5 h. Caffeine and Zn concentrations of the brain, kidney, heart, and liver of all groups were determined. The plasma-caffeine curve in group 3 showed a lower concentration at 3 min and a slower caffeine-elimination rate during the first 3 h. Brain and kidney caffeine levels remained constant in all groups, whereas caffeine levels were increased in the heart in group 2 and in the liver in group 3. Zn concentrations in the brain and kidney were lower in group 2 compared with groups 1 and 3 and higher in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. Zn concentration in the heart was the same among the three groups but was increased in the liver in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. Therefore, we concluded that caffeine combined with Zn affects caffeine pharmacokinetics. With caffeine intake, levels of Zn (16 µg/g BW) that are slightly higher than the daily requirements (12 µg/g BW) may prevent a reduction of Zn in tissue. In addition, caffeine’s effects on Zn concentration among organs are different.

Index Entries

Caffeine Zn rats vital organs time effects 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. Nakamoto, A. D. Hartman, and F. Joseph, Interaction between caffeine intake and nutritional status on growing brains and newborn rats, Ann. Nutr. Metab. 33, 92–99 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. J. Rossowska, C. Dinh, S. K. Gottschalk, M. Yazdani, F. S. Sutton III, and T. Nakamoto, Interaction between caffeine intake and Zn concentration of the rat heart, Br. J. Nutr. 64, 561–567 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Valdes, R. Shaye, F. Joseph, Jr., and T. Nakamoto, The effects of caffeine on the maxillary composition in the newborn rats, Calcif. Tissue Int. 50, 165–168 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Hashimoto, F. Joseph, Jr., A. U. Falster, W. B. Simmons, and T. Nakamoto, Effects of maternal caffeine intake during lactation period on molar enamel surfaces in newborn rats, Arch. Oral Biol. 37, 105–109 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. J. Bettger and B. L. O’Dell, A critical physiological role of Zn in the structure and function of biomembranes, Life Sci. 28, 1425–1438 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Yazdani, F. Joseph, S. Grant, A. Hartman, and T. Nakamoto, Various levels of maternal caffeine ingestion during gestation affect biochemical parameters of rat brain differently, Dev. Pharmacol. Ther. 14, 52–61 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Nakamoto, F. Joseph, Jr., M. Yazdani, and A. D. Hartman, Effects of different levels of caffeine supplemented to the maternal diet on the brains of newborn rats and their dams, Toxicol. Lett. 44, 167–175 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. M. Graham, Caffeine: its identity, dietary sources, intake and biological effects, Nutr. Rev. 36, 97–102 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. V. Aranda and T. Turman, Methylxanthines in apnea of prematurity, Clin. Perinatol. 6, 87–108 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. M. Davis, A. R. Spitzer, and J. L. Stefano, The use of caffeine in infants unresponsive to theophylline in apnea of prematurity, Pediatr. Res. 19, 171A (1985).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Kleiber, Body size and metabolic rate, in The Fire of Life, an Introduction to Animal Energetics, Wiley, New York, pp. 177–216 (1961).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    National Academy of Sciences, Nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, in Nutrient Requirement of Laboratory Animals, Number 10, 3rd rev. ed., National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, pp. 7–37 (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Leal, M. Barletta, and S. Carson, Maternal-fetal electrocardiographic effects and pharmacokinetics after an acute IV administration of caffeine to the pregnant rat, Reprod. Toxicol. 4, 105–112 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. L. Oser and R. A. Ford, Caffeine: an update, Drug Chem. Toxicol. 4, 311–329 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malektaj Yazdani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sheila Gottschalk
    • 1
  • Kazuya Ide
    • 2
  • Tetsuo Nakamoto
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Laboratory of Perinatal Nutrition and MetabolismLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew Orleans
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Perinatal Nutrition and MetabolismLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew Orleans

Personalised recommendations