In vivo singlet-oxygen generation in blood of chromium(VI)-treated mice
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Although it is assumed from in vitro experiments that the generation of reactive oxygen species such as the singlet oxygen (1O2), the hydroxyl radical, and the superoxide anion are responsible for chromium(VI) toxicity/carcinogenicity, no electron spin resonance (ESR) evidence for the generation of 1O2 in vivo has been reported. In this study, we have employed an ESR spin-trapping technique with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TMPD), a specific 1O2 trap, to detect 1O2 in blood. The ESR spectrum of the spin adduct observed in the blood of mice given 4.8 mmol Cr(VI)/kg body weight exhibited the 1 : 1 : 1 intensity pattern of three lines with a hyperfine coupling constant A N=16.08 G and a g-value=2.0066. The concentration of spin adduct detected in the blood was 1.46 µM (0.1% of total Cr concentration). The adduct production was inhibited by the addition of specific 1O2 scavengers such as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and sodium azide to the blood. The results indicate that the spin adduct is nitroxide produced by the reaction of 1O2 with TMPD. This is the first report of ESR evidence for the in vivo generation of 1O2 in mammals by Cr(VI).
Index EntriesChromium(VI) singlet oxygen blood in vivo mice ESR spin-trapping 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone
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