Zinc serum level in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to immunological status
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, serum level of zinc, an important micronutrient for immune function, is frequently diminished. The aim of this study was to determine the zinc status in relation to immunological parameters and disease stage in 79 HIV-1 seropositive patients. The median serum level of zinc was within normal limits (12.5 µmol/L) but in 23% of patients, zinc deficiency was seen. Decreased serum zinc was associated with a low CD4 cell count, high viral load, and increased neopterin and IgA levels. According to current treatment recommendations, the majority of patients received antiretroviral triple therapy. Zinc levels in treated and untreated patients were comparable. Referring to disease stage (CDC classification, 1993), the mean zinc level was highest in stage C and lowest in stage A. In conclusion, even under antiretroviral triple therapy, zinc deficiency is still of great importance in HIV infection, and zinc substitution in zinc deficient individuals should be taken into account to optimize therapeutical success.
Index EntriesZinc human immunodeficiency virus immunology antiretroviral therapy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.S. Cunningham-Rundles, R. S. Bockmann, A. Lin, P. V. Giardina, M. W. Hilgartner, D. Caldwell-Brown, et al., Physiological and pharmacological effects of zinc on immune response, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 587, 113–122 (1980).Google Scholar
- 9.C. Allavena, B. Dousset, T. May, F. Dubois, P. Canton, and F. Belleville, Relationship of trace element, immunological markers and HIV1 infection progression, Biol. Trace Element Res. 47, 133–138 (1995).Google Scholar
- 11.M. K. Baum, G. Shor-Posner, S. Lai, G. Zhang, H. Lai, M. A. Fletcher, et al., High risk of hIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 15, 370–374 (1997).Google Scholar
- 12.M. Egger, B. Hirschel, P. Francioli, P. Sudre, M. Wirz, M. Flepp, et al., Impact of new antiretroviral combination therapies in HIV infected patients in Switzerland: prospective multicentre study. Swiss HIV Cohort study, Br. Med. J. 315, 1194–1199 (1997).Google Scholar
- 14.Centers for Disease Control, 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults, MMWR 41, 1–19 (1992).Google Scholar
- 20.B. Melichar, R. Zangerle, E. Artner-Dworzak, H. Wachter, and D. Fuchs, Are disturbances of zinc metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection caused by immune activation? Pteridines 4, 195–199 (1993).Google Scholar