Urinary yttrium excretion and effects of yttrium chloride on renal function in rats
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Evaluation of yttrium exposure in biological samples has not been fully examined. To evaluate yttrium nephrotoxicity, yttrium chloride was orally administered to male Wistar rats and the urine volume (UV) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine excretion (Crt) were measured in 24-h urine samples. The urinary yttrium concentration and excretion rate were determined by inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Large significant decreases of UV (>30%) and Crt (>10%) were observed at yttrium doses of 58.3–116.7 mg per rat, but no significant NAG changes was observed. This response pattern shows that a high yttrium dosage alters glomerular function rather than the proximal convoluted tubules. A urinary yttrium excretion rate of 0.216% and good dose-dependent urinary excretion (r=0.77) were confirmed. These results suggest that urinary yttrium is a suitable indicator of occupational and environmental exposure to this element, an increasingly important health issue because recent technological advances present significant potential risks of exposure to rare earth elements. We propose that the ICP-AES analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be a valuable tool for future research on the toxicology of rare earth elements.
Index EntriesRenal function urinary yttrium rare earth elements ICP-AES nephrotoxicity
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