Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 114, Issue 1–3, pp 1–5 | Cite as

Role of trace elements in primary arterial hypertension

Is mineral water style or prophylaxis?
  • Sławomir Tubek
Short Review


A negative relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular mortality rate was demonstrated and became a source of interest regarding minerals and trace metals in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and arterial hypertension. Higher incidences of sudden death, cerebrovascular diseases, arterial hypertension, and coronary heart disease have been reported in soft water areas. A major research effort has been devoted to the problem in an attempt to find a protective factor in hard water or a detrimental factor or element in soft water. The roles of calcium, magnesium, cobalt, lithium, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and copper have been considered potentially beneficial, whereas those of cadmium, lead, silver, zinc, and antimony have been considered potentially harmful. Cobalt and zinc have been attributed both roles. In the present article, the role of trace quantities of several elements in mineral water in the etiopathogenesis of primary arterial hypertension is reviewed.

Index Entries

Primary arterial hypertension trace elements 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sławomir Tubek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Physical Education and PhysiotherapyInstitute of TechnologyOpolePoland

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