Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 19–31 | Cite as

Effects of ascorbic acid on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and performance of broilers

  • Zeynep Erdogan
  • Suat Erdogan
  • Sefa Celik
  • Ali Unlu
Original Articles

Abstract

The effects of cadmium on performance, antioxidant defense system, liver and kidney functions, and cadmium accumulation in selected tissues of broiler chickens were studied. Whether the possible adverse effects of cadmium would reverse with the antioxidant ascorbic acid was also investigated. Hence, 4 treatment groups (3 replicates of 10 chicks each) were designed in the study: control, ascorbic acid, cadmium, and cadmium plus ascorbic acid. Cadmium was given via the drinking water at a concentration of 25 mg/L for 6 wk. Ascorbic acid was added to the basal diet at 200 mg/kg either alone or with cadmium. Cadmium decreased the body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and feed efficiency (FE) significantly at the end of the experiment, wheras its effect on feed consumption (FC) was not significant. Cadmium increased the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and lowered the activity of blood superoxide dismutase (SOD). Liver function enzymes, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities were not changed by cadmium. Cadmium ingestion did not alter serum creatinine levels. Although the serum cadmium level was not elevated, cadmium mainly accumulated in the kidneys, liver, pancreas, and muscle. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in a reduction of MDA level previously increased by cadmium and a restoration in SOD activity. However, ascorbic acid did not ameliorate the growth inhibitory effect of cadmium nor did it prevent accumulation of cadmium in analyzed tissues. These data indicate that oxidative stress, induced by cadmium, plays a role in decreasing the performance of broilers and that dietary supplementation by ascorbic acid might be useful in reversing the lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium and partly alleviating the adverse effect of cadmium on performance of broilers.

Index Entries

Cadmium ascorbic acid performance oxidative stress tissue accumulation broilers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    W. Mertz, Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed., Academic, Orlando, FL, vol. 2, pp. 281–307 (1986).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Manca, A. C. Ricard, B. Trottier, and G. Chevalier, Studies on lipid peroxidation in rat tissues following administration of low and moderate doses of cadmium chloride, Toxicology 67, 303–323 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. S. Mcdowell, Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition, Academic, San Diego, CA, pp. 361–374 (1992).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Jarup, M. Berglund, C. G. Elinder, G. Nordberg, and M. Vahder, Health effects of cardmium exposure a review of the literature and a risk estimate, Scand. J. Work. Environ. Health 24, 1–51 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. G. Schawarz and I. M. Reis, Is cadmium a cause of humam pancreatic cancer? Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prevent. 9, 139–145 (2000).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. M. Brzoska, M. Kaminski, D. Supernak-Bobko, K. Zwierz, and J. Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. I. Biochemical and histopathological studies, Arch. Toxicol. 77, 344–352. (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Jurczuk, M. M. Brzoska, J. Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, M. Galazyn-Sidorczuk, and E. Kulikowska-Karpinska, Antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of rats exposed to cadmium and ethanol, Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 429–438 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Elsenhans, K. Kolb, K. Schumann, and W. Forth, The longitudinal distribution of cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, and metallothionein in the small-intestinal mucosa of rats after administration of cadmium chloride, Biol. Trace Element Res. 41, 31–46 (1994).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. C. Lisic, M. P. Sarras, J. Hidalgo, and G. K. Andrews, Metallothioncin is a component of exocrine pancreas secretion: implications for zinc homeostasis, Am. J. Physiol. 271, C2204-C1110 (1996).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Shukla, G. S. Shukla, and R. C. Srimal, Cadmium-induced alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability and its possible correlation with decreased microvessel antioxidant potential in rat, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 15, 400–405 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Stajn, R. V. Zikic, B. Ognjanovic, et al., Effect of cadmium and selenium on the antioxodant defense system in rat kidneys, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 117C, 167–172 (1997).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. L. Novelli, E. P. Vieira, N. L. Rodrigues, and B. O. Ribas, Risk assessment of cadmium toxicity on hepatic and renal tissues of rats, Environ. Res. 79, 102–105 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Patrick, Toxic metals and antioxidants: part II. The role of antioxidants in arsenic and cadmium toxicity, Altern. Med. Rev. 8, 106–128 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Sugiyama, Role of cellular antioxidants in metal-induced damage, Cell Biol. Toxicol. 10, 1–22 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. A. El-Maraghy, M. Z. Gad, A. T. Fahim, and M. A. Hamdy, Effect of cadmium and aluminum intake on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in rat tissues, J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 15, 207–214 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. P. Waalkes, M. R., Anver, and B. A. Diwan, Chronic, toxic and carcinogenic effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat: induction of neoplastic and proliferative lesions of the adrenal, kidney, prostate, and testes, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 58, 199–214 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Nakagawa and M. Nishijo, Environmental cadmium exposure, hypertension and cardiovascular risk, J. Cardiovasc. Risk 3, 11–17 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Carr and B. Frei, Does vitamin C act as a pro-oxidant under physiological conditions? FASEB J. 13, 1007–1024 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O. Kucuk, N. Sahin, K. Sahin, et al, Egg production, egg quality, and lipid peroxidation status in lying hens maintained at a low ambient temperature (6°C) and fed a vitamin C and vitamin E-supplemented diet. Vet. Med.-Czech. 1–2, 33–40 (2003).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    National Research Council (NRC), Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th rev. ed., National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 44–45 (1994).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. O. A. C., Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA (1990).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Yoshioko, K. Kawada, and T. Shimada, Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against activated-oxygen toxicity in the blood, Am. J. Obstet. Gyncol. 135, 372–376 (1979).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. C. Winterbourn, R. E. Hawkins, M. Brian, and R. W. Carrel, The estimation of, red cell superoxide dismutase activity, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 85, 337–341 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. L. Alonso, J. L. Benedito, M. Miranda, C. Castillo, J. Hernandez, and R. F. Shore, Arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in cattle from Galicia, NW Spain, Sci. Total Environ. 246, 237–248 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. J. Lai and G. C. Jamieson, Determination of dysprosium in monkey serum by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after the, administration of Sprodiamide injection, a new contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging, J. Pharm. Biomed. 11, 1129–1134 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    SPSS Inc., SPSS for Windows. Base System User's Guide, Release 9.05, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL (1999).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Bokori, S. Fekete, I. Kadar, J. Koncz, F. Vetesi, and M. Albert, Complex study of the physiological role of cadmium. III. Cadmium loading trials on broiler chickens, Acta Vet. Hung. 43, 195–228 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Bokori, S. Fekete, R. Glavits, I. Kadar, J. Koncz, and L. Kovari, Complex study of the physiological role of cadmium. IV. Effects of prolonged dietary exposure of broiler chickens to cadmium, Acta Vet. Hung. 44, 57–74 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. K. Vodela, S. D. Lenz, J. A. Renden, W. H. Mcelhenney, and B. W. Kemppainen, Drinking water contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, benzene and trichloroethylene). 1. Interaction of contaminants with nutritional status on general performance and immune function in broiler chickens, Poult. Sci. 76, 1474–1492 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Nordberg, T. Jin, and G. F. Nordberg, Cadmium metallothionnein and renal tubular toxicity, IARC Sci. Publ. 118, 293–297 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Kadrabova, A. Madaric, and E. Ginter, Zinc and copper in the tissues and serum of cadmium intoxicated guinea-pigs: influence of vitamin C, Physiol. Rev. 42, 261–266 (1993).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Jarup, T. Alfyen, and B. Persson, G. Toss, and C. G. Elinder, Cadmium may be a risk factor for osteoporosis, Occup. Environ. Med. 55, 435–439 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Ogoshi, Y. Nanzai, and T. Moriyama, Decrease in bone strength of cadmium-treated young and old rats, Arch. Toxicol. 66, 315–20 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Oner, U. K. Senturk, and N. Izgut-Uysal, The role of cadmium in the peroxidative response of kidney to stress, Biol. Trace Element Res. 48, 111–117 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Casalino, G. Calzaretti, C. Sblano, and C. Landriscina, Molecular inhibitory mechanisms of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and kidney by cadmium, Toxicology 179, 37–50 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Hudecova, E. Ginter, The influence of ascorbic acid on lipid peroxidation in guinea pigs intoxicated with cadmium, Food Chem. Toxicol. 30, 1011–1013 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Nagyova, S. Galbavy, and E. Ginter, Histopathological evidence of vitamin C protection against Cd-nephrotoxicity in guinea pigs, Exp., Toxicol. Pathol. 46, 11–14 (1994).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. S. Krishnan, S. M. Lui, R. E. Jervis, and J. E. Harrison, Studies of cadmium uptake in bone and its environmental distribution, Biol. Trace Element Res. 26–27, 257–261 (1990).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    W. A. Rambeck, and I. Guillot, Bioavailability of cadmium: effect of vitamin C and phytase in broiler chickens, Tierarzt. Praxic. 24, 467–470 (1996).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zeynep Erdogan
    • 1
  • Suat Erdogan
    • 2
  • Sefa Celik
    • 2
  • Ali Unlu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional DiseasesMustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAntakya-HatayTurkey
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryMustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAntakya-HatayTurkey
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryMersin University, School of MedicineMersinTurkey

Personalised recommendations