Cooperativity and substrate specificity of an alkaline amylase and neopullulanase complex of Micrococcus halobius OR-1
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The saccharifying alkaline amylase and neopullulanase complex of Micrococcus halobius OR-1 hydrolyzes both α-(1,4)- and α-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages of different linear and branched polysaccharides. The following observations were made concerning the analysis of the coexpressed amylase and neopullulanase enzymes. Even though the enzymes were subjected to a rigorous purification protocol, the activities could not be separated, because both the enzymes were found to migrate in a single peak. By contrast, two independent bands of amylolytic activity at 70 kDa and pullulanolytic activity at 53 kDa were evident by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), reducing and nonreducing PAGE, and zymographic analysis on different polysaccharides. Preferential chemical modification of the enzyme and concomitant high-performance thin-layer chromatographic analyses of the saccharides liberated showed that amylase is sensitive to 1-(dimethylamino-propyl)-3-ethyl carbodiimide-HCl and cleaved α-(1,4) linkages of starch, amylose, and amylopectin producing predominantly maltotriose. On the other hand, formalin-sensitive neopullulanase acts on both α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) linkages of pullulan and starch with maltotriose and panose as major products. It is understood that neopullulanase exhibits dual activity and acts in synergy with amylase toward the hydrolysis of α-(1,4) linkages, thereby increasing the overall reaction rate; however, such a synergism is not seen in zymograms, in which the enzymes are physically separated during electrophoresis. It is presumed that SDS-protein intercalation dissociated the enzyme complex, without altering the individual active site architecture, with only the synergism lost. The optimum temperature and pH of amylase and neopullulanase were 60°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzymes were found stable in high alkaline pH for 24 h. Therefore, the saccharifying alkaline amylase and neopullulanase of M. halobius OR-1 evolved from tapioca cultivar shows a highly active and unique enzyme complex with several valuable biochemical features.
Index EntriesMicrococcus substrate specificity amylase neopullulanase
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