Pre-Pyloric Neural Electrical Stimulation Produces Cholinergically-Mediated Reverse Peristalsis in the Acute Canine Model of Microprocessor-Invoked Gastric Motility for the Treatment of Obesity
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Background: Gastric Electrical Stimulation (GES) has been suggested as a new tool for the treatment of obesity. Among the known methods for GES, only Neural Gastric Electrical Stimulation (NGES) provides direct control of contractility without utilizing the spontaneously existing gastric electrical activity as an intermediary. However, only one of the established GES techniques, gastric pacing, has been described to produce retrograde peristalsis for delaying gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of producing retrograde peristalsis using either single electrode set or dual electrode set NGES. Methods: 8 anesthetized dogs underwent laparotomy and implantation of 2 circumferential electrode sets approximately 3 cm and 7 cm proximal to the pylorus, respectively. Single-set and dual-set NGES sessions were repeatedly administered using a custom-designed implantable neurostimulator. Gastric motility patterns were captured using 3 force transducers implanted on the anterior gastric wall along the gastric axis. Motility indices and velocities were employed to quantify the produced contractile patterns. Results: Both single-set and dual-set NGES produced circumferential lumen-occluding contractions in the vicinity of the electrode sets. The invoked contractions propagated proximally in a retrograde fashion. The propagation scope was different depending on the number of electrode sets used. Different velocities of the invoked retrograde contractions associated with single- and dual-set NGES were observed and quantified. Contractility patterns reflected by the normalized motility indices were very similar regardless of the electrode stimulation technique. Conclusion: Pre-pyloric NGES can produce controlled retrograde peristalsis and serve as another avenue for the treatment of obesity.
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