, Volume 70, Issue 3–4, pp 481–487 | Cite as

Liquid–Liquid–Liquid Micro Extraction Combined with CE for the Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Water Samples

  • Liu Xuejuan
  • Fan Zhefeng


A simple method for determination of rare earth elements (REEs) by liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction (LLLME) coupled with capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet technique was developed. In the LLLME system, 40 mmol L−1 4-benzoyl-3-methy-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolinone (PMBP) acted as extractant and 4% (v/v) formic acid was used as back-extraction solution. The parameters influencing the LLLME, including the type of the organic solvent, sample pH, formic acid concentration, PMBP concentration, extraction time, volume of organic solvent, stirring rate and phase volume ratio, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of REEs were in the range of 0.19–0.70 ng mL−1. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of REEs in water samples.


Liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction Capillary electrophoresis Rare earth elements in natural water 



This work was supported by the Academic Pacesetter Foundation Program and Nature Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (2009011013-2), China.


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Copyright information

© Vieweg+Teubner | GWV Fachverlage GmbH 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryShanxi Normal UniversityLinfenChina

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