Extraction of Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste Using Pressurized Hot Ethanol
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An efficient and environmentally sustainable extraction method is proposed for the enrichment of a high-value pigment, astaxanthin, from a low-value raw material, shrimp waste. Ethanol at elevated temperature and pressure was used as a “green” extraction solvent. An experimental design approach based on central composite design was used to investigate the dependence of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) operating variables (pressure, temperature, extraction time) on the recovered astaxanthin concentration from shrimp waste. The results show that at a 95% confidence level, the most significant PLE operating variables were extraction temperature and time. Extraction pressure had only a minor effect on the astaxanthin recovery in the studied experimental conditions. The maximum astaxanthin recovery obtainable by PLE was calculated from the chemometrics results and then appraised by experiments. Our results show astaxanthin yields of around 24 mg kg−1 shrimp waste. The reproducibility of the developed PLE method is good, showing a relative standard deviation of 3.5% (n = 6) for astaxanthin.
KeywordsColumn liquid chromatography Pressurized liquid extraction Shrimp waste Astaxanthin
Can Quan thanks Dr. Rolf Danielsson of Uppsala University for many helpful discussions of statistics knowledge and Dr. Jing Gong of Uppsala University who helped out with optimization of PLE conditions. Charlotta Turner acknowledges the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS, 209-2006-1346); the Swedish Research Council (VR, 2006-4084); and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF, 2005:0073/13).
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