Chromatographia

, Volume 63, Supplement 13, pp S55–S60 | Cite as

The Choice of Internal Standards for Measuring Volatile Pollutants in Water

Article

Abstract

54 volatile pollutants have been examined by static headspace-gas chromatography-mass selective detection in order to find the proper internal standard for each of the pollutants examined. The applicability of the internal standards has been assessed mathematically. For modelling, we prepared 2 × 4 × 4 solutions using blank water with added sodium sulphate and humic acid at four different concentrations for each. These solutions were spiked with two different concentrations of dilute standard solutions. We also examined 44 real water samples for traces of the 54 volatile pollutants, spiking them with dilute standard solutions. The results of a single measurement were 54 quotients for relative extraction efficiency: the area of the pollutant divided by the corresponding area of the spiked blank water measurement. For each pair of pollutants, the Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for both the model and real water samples. We regarded two pollutants as being the same, if their Pearson correlation coefficient was greater than 0.95. Among similar pollutants we selected candidates for being suitable internal standards based on the highest correlation coefficients. We found, that five compounds are sufficient to cover 49 pollutants. Two pollutants did not exhibit a matrix effect and for these only the external calibration method can be used. For three pollutants, special considerations apply.The measurement data generally verified that structurally similar compounds have high correlation coefficients, but there were exceptions among similar compounds and unexpected similarities were also found. Nothing was found in the literature on determining the proper internal standard using Pearson correlation coefficients.

Keywords

Gas chromatography Static headspace sampling Pearson correlation coefficient Volatile organic compounds Water samples 

References

  1. Ioffe BF, Vitenberg AG (1984) Head-Space Analysis and Related Methods in Gas Chromatography, A Wiley-Interscience PublicationGoogle Scholar
  2. Kolb B, Ettre LS (1997) Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography, Theory and Practice, Wiley-VCHGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarado JS, Rose C (2004) Talanta 62:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cruwys JA, Dinsdale RM, Hawkes FR, Hawkes DL (2002) J Chromatogr A 945:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Maris C, Laplanche A, Morvan J, Bloquel M (1999) J Chromatogr A 846:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ketola RA, Virkki VT, Ojala M, Komppa V, Kotiaho T (1997) Talanta 44:373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hino T, Nakanishi S, Hobo T (1996) J Chromatogr A 746:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakierowska A-M, Trzeszczynski J (2003) Fluid Phase Equilib 213:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Spinosa de Martinis B, Martins Ruzzene MA, Santos Martin CC (2004) Anal Chim Acta 522:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Wasfi IA, Al-Awadhi AH, Al-Hatali ZN, Al-Rayami FJ, Al Katheeri NA (2004) J Chromatogr B 799:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Wenzl T, Lankmayr EP (2000) J Chromatogr A 897:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nerin C, Asensio E (2004) Anal Chim Acta 508:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ortega-Heras M, Gonzáles-SanJosé ML, Beltrán S (2002) Anal Chim Acta 458:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Péres C, Begnaud F, Berdagué J-L (2002) Sens Actuators B 87:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Etiope G (1997) J Chromatogr A 775:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Document 398L0083 Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption Official Journal L 330, 05/12/1998 p. 2Google Scholar
  17. Decree No.201/2001 on the quality of water intended for human consumption (2001) Hungarian Official Gazette 118:8188–8210Google Scholar
  18. Order in Council No.21/2002 on the operation of public water utilities (2002) Hungarian Official Gazette 52:3432–3443Google Scholar
  19. Vane LM, Giroux EL (2000) J Chem Eng Data 45:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Aguliar C, Penalver S, Pocurull E, Borrull F, Marcé RM (1998) J Chromatoghr A 795:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Valor I, Moltó JC, Apraiz D, Font G (1997) J Chromatogr A 767:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wahl HG, Hoffmann A, Luft D, Liebich HM (1999) J Chromatogr A 847:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vitha MF, Dallas AJ, Carr PW (1996) J Phys Chem 100:5050–5062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keeley DF, Hoffpauir MA, Merlwether JR (1991) J Chem Eng Data 36:456–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keeley DF, Hoffpauir MA, Merlwether JR (1988) J Chem Eng Data 33:87–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pörschmann J, Kopinke F-D, Pawliszyn J (1998) J Chromatogr 816:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Strassing S, Lankmayr EP (1999) J Chromatogr 849:629–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolb B (1982) Chromatoghraphia 15:587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Alasalvar C, Grigor JM, Quantick PC (1999) Food Chem 65:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Otero R, Carrera G, Dulsat JF, Fábregas JL, Claramunt J (2004) J Chromatogr A 1057:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Urakami K, Higashi A, Umemoto K, Godo M (2004) J Chromatogr A 1057:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hansson A, Andersson J, Leufvén A (2001) Food Chem 72:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schlautman MA, Yim S, Carraway EC, Lee JH, Herbert BE (2004) Water Res 38:3331–3339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Boland AB, Buhr K, Giannouli P, van Ruth SM (2004) Food Chem 86:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Woodruff NW, Durant JL, Donhoffner LL, Penman BW, Crespi CL (2000) Mutation Res 495:157–168Google Scholar
  36. Water quality. Determination of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Chromatographic methods. EN ISO 10301:1997Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn/GWV Fachverlage GmbH 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.WienAustria
  3. 3.Eötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations