Residual stress analysis in thermally sprayed layer composites, using the hole milling and drilling method

  • R. Gadow
  • M. J. Riegert-Escribano
  • M. Buchmann
Reviewed Papers


Residual stresses are related to the thermophysical properties of substrate and coating materials and occur after the coated component has undergone thermal spraying and machining processes. All residual stresses in layer composites result from different individual stress mechanisms occurring during the manufacturing process, mainly based on heat and mass transfer during the coating deposition. Using the hole-milling-and-drilling method, residual stress fields can be measured in a quasi-nondestructive way over the drilling depth with appropriate resolution. In several drilling and milling operations, a cylindrically shaped hole is brought step by step into the component surface. The residual stresses are locally relieved due to material removal, deform the surface around the drilled microhole, and are measured by high-resolution measurement tools (e.g., strain gages (DMS)), for every drilling step in the form of relaxed surface strains. Using calibration curves and material data (E, μ), the measured surface strains are converted into nominal strains at the bottom of the drilled hole for every drilling step. Out of the differentiated strains, in-plane stress fields can be incrementally determined by Hooke’s law. This study describes residual stress measurement features, the finite-element method (FEM) calculation, and the idealization of calibration curves, as well as the results of exemplary stress measurements.


calibration curves hole-drilling method layer composites residual stresses thermal spraying 


  1. 1.
    K.A. Khor and Y.W. Gu, Effects of Residual Stresses on the Performance of Plasma Sprayed Functionally Graded ZrO2/NiCoCrAlY Coatings, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, Vol 277, 2000, p 64–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.A. Khor, Y.W. Gu, and Z.L. Dong, Plasma Spraying of Functionally Graded ZrO2/NiCoCrAlY coating System Using Composite Powders, Thermal Spray: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century, C. Coddet, Ed., May 25–29, 1998 (Nice, France), ASM International, 1998, p 1543–1549Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.W. Clyne and S.C. Gill, Residual Stresses in Thermal Spray Coatings and their Effect on Interfacial Adhesion: A Review of Recent Work. J. Thermal Spray Technol., Vol 5 (No. 4), 1996, p 401–418Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.T.R. McGrann, D.J. Greving, E.F. Rybicki, J.R. Shadley, D.A. Sommerville, and B.E. Bodger, Fatigue Life in Bending and Coating Residual Stress in Tungsten Carbide Thermal Spray Coatings on Aluminum and Steel Substrates, Thermal Spray: A United Forum for Scientific and Technological Advances, C.C. Berndt, Ed., Sept. 15–18, 1997 (Indianapolis, IN), ASM International, 1997, p 737–742Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Pejryd, J. Wigren, D.J. Greving, J.R. Shadley, and E.F. Rybicki, Residual Stress as a Factor in the Selection of Tungsten Carbide Coatings for a Jet Engine Application, J. Thermal Spray Technol., Vol 10 (No. 3), 2001, p 268–274Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Pawlowski, The Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, U.K., 1995Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Kuroda, Properties and Characterization of Thermal Sprayed Coatings: A Review of Recent Research Progress, Thermal Spray: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century, C. Coddet, Ed., May 25–29, 1998 (Nice, France), ASM International, p 539–551Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Scholtes, Eigenspannungen in mechanisch randschichtverformten Werkstoffzuständen: Ursachen, Ermittlung und Bewertung (Residual Stresses in Mechanically Surface Deformed Material Conditions: Reasons, Determination and Evaluation), DGM-Informationsges, 1991 (in German)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Buchmann and R. Gadow, Estimation of Residual Stresses from the Simulation of the Deposition Process of Ceramic Coatings on Light Metal Cylinder Liners, Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., Vol 3 (No. 22), 2001, p 329–336Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Buchmann and R. Gadow, High Speed Circular Microhole Milling Method for the Determination of Residual Stresses in Coatings and Composites, Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., Vol 3 (No. 21), 2000, p 109–116Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Schwarz, “Beitrag zur Eigenspannungsermittlung an isotropen, anisotropen sowie inhomogenen, schichtweise aufgebauten Werkstoffen mittels Bohrlochmethode und Ringkernverfahren” (“Residual Stress Measurement in Isotropic, Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Layer Composites Using the Hole Drilling and Ringcore Drilling Method”), Ph.D. dissertation, MPA University of Stuttgart, 1996 (in German)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Haase, Eigenspannungsermittlung an dünnwandigen Bauteilen und Schichtverbunden (Residual Stress Analysis in Thin-Walled Components and Layer Composites), Shaker Verlag GmbH, Aachen, Germany, 1998, (in German)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Buchmann, C Friedrich, and R. Gadow, Residual Stress Characterization of Thermal Barrier Coatings: Comparison of Thermally Sprayed, EB-PVD and CVD Based Coatings, Ceram. Eng Sci. Proc., Vol 4 (No. 21), 2000, p 663–670Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Escribano, “Determination of the Young’s Moduli and Residual Stresses of Thermally Sprayed Layer Composites,” Diploma thesis, Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites, University of Stuttgart, 2001Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Buchmann and R. Gadow, High Speed Circular Microhole Milling Method for the Determination of Residual Stresses in Coatings and Composites, Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., Vol. 3 (No. 21), 2000, p 109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.S. Schajer, Application of Finite Element Calculations to Residual Stress Measurements, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., Vol 103, 1981, p 157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Buchmann, G. Bürkle, M. Escribano, H.-J. Fecht, R. Gadow, and M. Mahlich, On the Elastic Mechanical Properties of Thermally Sprayed Coatings, International Thermal Spray: Conference, E. Lugscheider and C.C. Berndt, Ed., March 4–6, 2002 (Essen, Germany), DVS Deutscher Verband für Schweißen, 2002, p 598–605Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Gadow
    • 1
  • M. J. Riegert-Escribano
    • 1
  • M. Buchmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and CompositesIMTCCC, University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Federal-Mogul Friedberg GmbHFriedbergGermany

Personalised recommendations