The study of minor elements and shielding gas on penetration in TIG welding of type 304 stainless steel

  • R. -I. Hsieh
  • Y. -T. Pan
  • H. -Y. Liou


The effects of minor elements and shielding gas on the penetration of TIG welding in type 304 stainless steel have been studied. The bead-on-plate test was performed, then the depth and width of the weld were measured using an optical projection machine. The arc voltage was measured with an arc data monitor. In addition, the metallurgical characteristics of weld were examined using OM and SEM. The results show that oxygen and sulfur are beneficial in increasing a depth/width ratio because of the increased surface tension/temperature gradient. Elements, such as aluminum, that have a deleterious effect on the depth/width ratio will combine with oxygen and reduce the soluble oxygen content in the weld pool. On the other hand, silicon and phosphorus have a minor effect on the depth/width ratio. Shielding gas using Ar + 1% O2 or Ar + 5% H2 can significantly promote the depth/width ratio. The former contains increased soluble oxygen content in the weld pool, and the latter produces an arc that is hotter than that produced by pure argon.


depth/width ratio minor elements penetration shield gas surface tension TIG welding type 304 stainless steel weld pool 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G.W. Olyer, R.A. Matsuzesk, and C.R. Garr, Weld. J., Vol 46, 1967, p 1006Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.J. Rodgers, “The Effects of Residual Impurity and Microalloying Elements on Weldability and Weld Properties,” paper 2, The Welding Institute, Abington, U.K., 1983Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.K. Aidum and S.A. Martin, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., Vol 60, 1997, p 496Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.J. Keene, K.C. Mill, and R.F. Brooks, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol 1, 1985, p 568Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.R. Heiple, J.R. Roper, R.T. Stagner, and R.J. Aden, Weld. J., Vol 62, 1983, p 72sGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K.C. Mill and B.J. Keene, Int. Mater. Rev., Vol 35, 1990, p 185Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.F. Lancaster and K.C. Mills, International Institute of Welding recommendation 212-796-91Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    X.M. Xue, H.G. Jiang, Z.T. Sui, B.Z. Ding, and Z.Q. Hu, Metall. Trans. B, Vol 27, 1996, p 71Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Pollard, Weld. J., Vol 67, 1988, p 202sGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.M. Dowling, J.M. Corbett, and H.W. Kerr, Metall. Trans. A, Vol 17, 1986, p 1611Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.F. Lancaster, The Physics of Welding, 2nd ed., International Institute of Welding, 1986Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.M. Makara, Automat. Weld., Vol 9, 1977, p 1Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Kokawa, J. Okada, and T. Kuwana, Q. J. Jpn. Weld. Soc., Vol 10, 1992, p 496Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.A. Lambert, Weld. J., Vol 67, 1988, p 202sGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Onien, R. Peters, D.L. Olson, and S. Liu, Weld. J., Vol 74, 1995, p 10sGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.A. Lambert, Weld. J., Vol 70, 1991, p 41Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. -I. Hsieh
    • 1
  • Y. -T. Pan
    • 1
  • H. -Y. Liou
    • 1
  1. 1.Steel and Aluminum Research and DevelopmentChina Steel CorporationTaiwan, R.O.C.

Personalised recommendations