Surface characterization methods— XPS,TOF-SIMS, and SAM a complimentary ensemble of tools
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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning auger microscopy (SAM) analytical techniques have played important roles in the characterization of the surface and the interfacial chemistry governing properties and performance of materials, and material interfaces. These techniques afford spatially resolved elemental and molecular analysis of the topmost atomic layers of solid surfaces and interfaces. Currently available instrumentation provides qualitative/quantitative analysis on molecularly complex materials with detection limits in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range and spatial resolutions approaching 30 nm. Each technique is unique in the information attained, therefore necessitating a multitechnique approach to achieve a complete surface characterization. Examples of coating/interfacial characterization by XPS, TOF-SIMS, and SAM are presented illustrating the functionality of these tools and the complimentary natures of them.
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