Density and surface tension of the Pb-Sn liquid alloys

Abstract

The maximum bubble pressure method and the dilatometric method were used, respectively, in measurements of surface tensions and densities of Pb-Sn liquid alloys. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 573 to 1200 K for the pure Pb, pure Sn, and 7 alloys of the compositions 0.1, 0.2, 0.26, 0.36, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 mole fraction of Pb. A straight-line dependence on temperature was observed and fitted by the method of least squares both for the densities and the surface tensions. The calculated density isotherm at 673 K showed a positive deviation from the linearity over the entire range of composition, and the same tendency was seen at 1173 K for compositions higher than X Pb=0.26. At the lower concentration of Pb, a nearly linear character of 1173 K isotherm was noted. In the case of surface tensions, both at the lowest and the highest temperatures (673 and 1173 K), the deviation from linearity with composition was negative, but deviation decreased with increasing temperature. The isotherms of the compositional dependence of surface tension calculated from the Butler model exhibit good agreement with experimental data.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1922Sug: S. Sugden: J. Chem. Soc., 1922, vol. 121, pp. 858-68. 1932But: 7.A.V Butler: Proc. R. Soc., 1932, vol. A135, pp. 347-75. 1934Bir: L.L. Bircumshaw: Phil. Mag., 1934, vol. 17, pp. 181-92.

  2. 1949Pok: N.L. Pokrovskij and N.D. Galanina: J. Phis. Chim., 1949, vol. 23, pp. 324-31.

  3. 1957Hoa: T.P. Hoar and D.A. Melford: Trans. Faraday Soc., 1957, vol. 53, pp. 315-26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 1968Thr: H.R. Tresh, A.F. Crawley, and D.W.G. White: Trans. TMS-AIMS, 1968, vol. 242, pp. 819-22.

  5. 1971Lan: G. Lang: J Inst. Met., 1971, vol. 104, pp. 300-08. 1971Whi: D.W.G. White: Metall. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, pp. 3067-71.

  6. 1972Ada: A. Adachi, Z. Morita, I'. Kita, and A. Kasama: Technol. Rep. Osaka Univ., 1972, vol. 93, pp. 1027-33.

  7. 1975Abd: A.K. Abdel-Azis and H.R. Kirshak: Z. Metallkd., 1975, vol. 66, pp. 18-21.

  8. 1977Kuc: M. Kucharski: Arch. Hut., 1977, vol. 22, pp. 181-94.

  9. 1983Bra: E.A. Brandes, Smithells Reference Book, E.A. Brandes, ed., London, 1983.

  10. 1985Som: V Somol and M. Berenek: Hutnicke Listy, 1985, vol. 4, pp. 278-80.

  11. 1988Kar: 1. Karakaya and W.T. Thompson: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 1988, vol. 9 (2), pp. 144-52.

  12. 1989Nog: K. Nogi, K. Oshino, and K. Ogino: Mater. Trans. JIM, 1989, vol. 30, pp. 137-44.

  13. 1989K1e: R.7. Klein: Soldering in Electronics, Electrochemical Publications, Ayr, Scotland, 1989.

  14. 1990Pas: A.P. Passerone, F. Ricci, and R. Sangorgi: J. Mater. Sci., 1990, vol. 25, pp. 4266-72.

  15. 1994Tan: T. Tanaka and T. lida: Steel Research, 1994, vol. 65, pp. 21-28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 1996Tan: T. Tanaka, K. Hack, T. lida, and S. Hara: Z. Metallkd., 1996, vol. 87, pp. 380-89.

  17. 1999Tan: T. Tanaka, K. Hack, and S. Hara, MRS Bulletin, 1999, vol. 24, pp. 45-50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gąsior, W., Moser, Z. & Pstruś, J. Density and surface tension of the Pb-Sn liquid alloys. JPE 22, 20–25 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1361/105497101770339256

Download citation

Keywords

  • Surface Tension
  • Excess Gibbs Energy
  • Dilatometric Method
  • Maximum Bubble Pressure Method
  • Partial Excess Gibbs Energy