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Weldability evaluation of high tensile plates using GMAW process

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Abstract

High tensile plates, SAILMA-450 high impact (HI) (yield strength, 45 kg/mm2 minimum; ultimate tensile strength, 57 kg/mm2 minimum; elongation, 19% minimum; Charpy impact energy 2.0 kg.m at −20 °C minimum) were successfully developed at the Steel Authority of India Ltd., up to 32 mm plate thickness. Since then the steel has been extensively used for the fabrication of impellers, bridges, excavators, and mining machineries, where welding is an important processing step.

The present study deals with the weldability properties of SAILMA-450 HI plates employing the gas metal arc welding process and carbon dioxide gas. Implant and elastic restraint cracking tests were conducted to assess the cold cracking resistance of the weld joint under different welding conditions. The static fatigue limit values were found to be in excess of minimum specified yield strength at higher heat input levels (9.4 and 13.0 kJ/cm), indicating adequate cold cracking resistance. The critical restraint intensities, K cr, were found to vary between 720 and 1280 kg/mm2, indicating that the process can be utilized for fabrication of structures involving moderate to low restraint intensities (200 to 1000 kg/mm2). Lamellar tear tests conducted using full thickness plates at heat input levels ranging from 10 to 27 kJ/cm showed no incidence of lamellar tear upon visual, ultrasonic, and four-section macroexamination. These tests were repeated using machined plates, such that the midthickness of the plates (segregated zone) corresponded to the heat affected zone of the weld. No cracks were observed, indicating good lamellar tear resistance of the weld joint. Optimized welding conditions were formulated based on these tests. The weld joint was subjected to extensive tests to assess the physical properties and soundness of the weld joint. The weld joint exhibited good strength (64.7 kg/mm2) and impact toughness (5.7 and 3.5 kg.m at −20 °C for weld metal and heat affected zone properties. Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests carried out for parent metal, heat-affected zone, and weld metal resulted in δm values of 0.41, 0.40, and 0.34 mm, respectively, which indicates adequate resistance to cleavage fracture. It was concluded that the weld joint conforms to the requirements of SAILMA-450 HI specification and ensures a high integrity of the fabricated products.

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Datta, R., Mukerjee, D., Rohira, K.L. et al. Weldability evaluation of high tensile plates using GMAW process. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 8, 455–462 (1999) doi:10.1361/105994999770346765

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Keywords

  • cold cracking
  • gas metal arc welding
  • impact toughness
  • lamellar tear
  • restraint intensity
  • thermomechanical controlled processing