Advertisement

Exogenous ethylene influences flower opening of cut roses (Rosa hybrida) by regulating the genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes

  • Nan Ma
  • Lei Cai
  • Wangjin Lu
  • Hui Tan
  • Junping Gao
Article
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differential responses of flower opening to ethylene in two cut rose cultivars, ‘Samantha’, whose opening process is promoted, and ‘Kardinal’, whose opening process is inhibited by ethylene. Ethylene production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and oxidase activities were determined first. After ethylene treatment, ethylene production, ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities in petals increased and peaked at the earlier stage (stage 3) in ‘Samantha’, and they were much more dramatically enhanced and peaked at the later stage (stage 4) in ‘Kardinal’ than control during vasing. cDNA fragments of three Rh-ACSs and one Rh-ACO genes were cloned and designated as Rh-ACS1, Rh-ACS2, Rh-ACS3 and Rh-ACO1 respectively. Northern blotting analysis revealed that, among three genes of ACS, ethylene-induced expression patterns of Rh-ACS3 gene corresponded to ACS activity and ethylene production in both cultivars. A more dramatic accumulation of Rh-ACS3 mRNA was induced by ethylene in ‘Kardinal’ than that of ‘Samantha’. As an ethylene action inhibitor, STS at concentration of 0.2 mmol/L generally inhibited the expression of Rh-ACSs and Rh-ACO in both cultivars, although it induced the expression of Rh-ACS3 transiently in ‘Kardinal’. Our results suggests that ‘Kardinal’ is more sensitive to ethylene than ‘Samantha’; and the changes of Rh-ACS3 expression caused by ethylene might be related to the acceleration of flower opening in ‘Samantha’ and the inhibition in ‘Kardinal’. Additional results indicated that three Rh-ACSs genes were differentially associated with flower opening and senescence as well as wounding.

Keywords

cut rose (Rosa hybridaflower opening ethylene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ACC synthase (ACS) ACC oxidase (ACO) gene expression 

References

  1. 1.
    Abeles, F. B., Morgan, P. W., Saltveit, M. E., Ethylene in Plant Biology, 2nd ed., 1992, San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woltering, E. J., Van Doorn, W. G., Role of ethylene in senescence of petals morphological and taxonomical relationships, J. Exp.Bot., 1988, 39: 1605–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reid, M. S., Evans, R. Y., Dodge, L. L. et al., Ethylene and silver thiosulphate influence opening of cut rose flowers, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 1989, 114: 436–440.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamamoto, K., Komatsu, Y., Yokoo, Y. et al., Delaying flower opening of cut roses by cis-propenylphosphonic acid, J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci., 1994, 63: 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gao, J. P., Zhang, X. H., Huang, M. J. et al., A preliminary study on change patterns of ethylene production during flower opening and senescence in cut roses, Acta Hort. Sin. (in Chinese), 1997, 24: 274–278.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cai, L., Zhang, X. H., Shen, H. X. et al., Effects of ethylene and its inhibitor on flower opening and senescence of cut roses, Acta Hort. Sin. (in Chinese), 2002, 29: 467–472.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang, S. F., Hoffman, N. E., Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 1984, 35: 155–189.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kende, H., Ethylene biosynthesis, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 1993, 44: 283–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bleecker, A. B., Kende, H., Ethylene: A gaseous signal molecule in plants, Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 2000, 16: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liang, X., Abel, S., Keller, J. A. et al., The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1992, 89: 11046–11050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liang, X., Shen, N. F., Theologis, A., Li+-regulated 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant J., 1996, 10: 1027–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oetiker, J. H., Olson, D. C., Shiu, O. Y. et al., Differential induction of seven 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase genes by elicitor in suspension cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Plant Mol. Biol., 1997, 34: 275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nakatsuka, A., Murachi, S., Okunishi, H. et al., Differential expression and internal feedback regulation of 1-aminocyclopro-pane-1 carboxylate synthase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and ethylene receptor genes in tomato fruit during development and ripening, Plant Physiol., 1998, 118: 1295–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakano, R., Ogura, E., Kubo, Y. et al., Ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initiated in calyx and modulated by water loss from the fruit, Plant Physiol., 2003, 131: 276–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Owino, W. O., Nakano, R., Kubo, Y. et al., Differential regulation of genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and ethylene response sensor ortholog during ripening and in response to wounding in avocado fruit, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 2004, 63: 159–166.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim, W. T., Campbell, A., Moriguchi, T. et al., Auxin induces three genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in mung bean hypocotyls, J. Plant Physiol., 1997, 150: 77–84.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang, P.-L., Parks, J. E., Rottmann, W. H. et al., Two genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) are clustered and similar but differentially regulated, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1991, 88: 7021–7025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zarembinski, T. I., Theologis, A., Anaerobiosis and plant growth hormones induce two genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in rice (Oryza sativa L.), Mol. Biol. Cell, 1993, 4: 363–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jones, M. L., Woodson, W. R., Differential expression of three members of 1-aminocyclo propane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in carnation, Plant Physiol., 1999, 119: 755–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bui, A. Q., O’Neill, S. D., Three 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase genes regulated by primary and secondary pollination signals in orchid flowers, Plant Physiol., 1998, 116: 419–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muller, R., Lind-Iversen, S., Stummann, B. M. et al., Expression of genes for ethylene biosynthetic enzymes and an ethylene receptor in senescing flowers of miniature potted roses, J. Hort. Sci. Biotech., 2000, 75: 12–18.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang, D., Fan, J., Ranu, R. S., Cloning and expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1carboxylate synthase cDNA from rosa (Rosa × hybrida), Plant Cell Rep., 2004, 22: 422–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nakatsuka, A., Shiomi, S., Kubo, Y. et al., Expression and internal feedback regulation of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes in ripening tomato fruit, Plant Cell Physiol., 1997, 38: 1103–1110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lizada, M. C., Yang, S. F., A simple and sensitive assay for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, Annal. Biochem., 1979, 100: 140–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wan, C. Y., Wilkins, T. A., A modified hot borate method significantly enhances the yield of high quality RNA from cotton (Gossypium hisrstum L.), Annal. Biochem., 1994, 223: 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, K. L. C., Li, H., Ecker, J. R., 1998. Ethylene biosynthasis and signaling networks, Plant Cell, 1998, (Suppl. S): 131–151.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rottmann, W. H., Peter, G. F., Oeller, P. W. et al., 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato is encoded by a multigene family whose transcription is induced during fruit and floral senescence, J. Mol. Biol., 1991, 222: 937–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yamagami, T., Tsuchisaka, A., Yamada, K. et al., Biochemical diversity among the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase isozymes encoded by the Arabidopsis gene family, J. Biol. Chem., 2003, 278: 49102–49112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nan Ma
    • 1
  • Lei Cai
    • 1
  • Wangjin Lu
    • 2
  • Hui Tan
    • 1
  • Junping Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape ArchitectureChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of HorticultureSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations