A minimum-order boundary element method to extract the 3-D inductance and resistance of the interconnects in VLSI
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The high frequency resistance and inductance of the 3-D complex interconnect structures can be calculated by solving an eddy current electromagnetic problem. In this paper, a model for charactering such a 3-D eddy current problem is proposed, in which the electromagnetic fields in both the conducting and non-conducting regions are described in terms of the magnetic vector potential, and a set of the indirect boundary integral equations (IBIE) is obtained. The IBIEs can be solved by boundary element method, so this method avoids discretizing the domain of the conductors. As an indirect boundary element method, it is of minimum order. It does not restrict the direction of the current in conductors, and hence it can consider the mutual impedance between two perpendicular conductors. The numerical results can well meet the analytical solution of a 2-D problem. The mutual impedance of two perpendicular conductors is also shown under the different gaps between conductors and different frequencies.
KeywordsVLSI circuits interconnects parasitic inductance and resistance indirect boundary integral equations
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