Indian Ocean temperature dipole and SSTA in the equatorial Pacific Ocean
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The observed sea surface temperature (SST) data of recent 100 years are analyzed and the existence of the Indian Ocean temperature dipole in the equatorial region is exposed further. It is very clear that the amplitude of the positive phase (higher SST in the west and lower SST in the east than normal) is larger than that of the negative phase (higher SST in the east and lower SST in the west). The dipole is stronger in September—November and weaker in January—April than in other months and it also appears obviously inter-annual and inter-decadal variations. Although the Indian Ocean dipole in the individual year seems to be independent of ENSO in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, in general, the Indian Ocean dipole has obviously negative correlation with the Pacific Ocean dipole (similar to the inverse phase of ENSO mode). The atmospheric zonal (Walker) circulation over the equator is fundamental to relate the two dipoles to each other.
KeywordsIndian Ocean temperature dipole anomaly of SST in the equatorial Pacific Pacific Ocean temperature dipole inverse ENSO mode
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