, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 587–615 | Cite as

Reproducing inequalities: Luck, wallets, and the enduring effects of childhood health

  • Alberto Palloni


In this article, I argue that research on social stratification, on intergenerational transmission of inequalities, and on the theory of factor payments and wage determination will be strengthened by studying the role played by early childhood health. I show that the inclusion of such a factor requires researchers to integrate theories in each of these fields with new theories linking early childhood health conditions and events that occur at later stages in the life course of individuals, particularly physical and mental health as well as disability and mortality. The empirical evidence I gather shows that early childhood health matters for the achievement of, or social accession to, adult social class positions. Even if the magnitude of associations is not overwhelming, it is not weaker than that found between adult social accession and other, more conventional and better-studied individual characteristics, such as educational attainment. It is very likely that the evidence presented in this article grossly underplays the importance of early childhood health for adult socioeconomic achievement.


Social Class Intergenerational Transmission Child Health Status Mobility Matrix Early Childhood Health 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, P., M.D. Hurd, D. McFadden, A. Merrill, and T. Ribeiro. 2003. “Healthy, Wealthy and Wise? Tests for Direct Causal Paths Between Health and Socioeconomic Status.” Journal of Econometrics 112(1):3–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, N.E. and J.M. Ostrove. 1999. “Socioeconomic Status and Health: What We Know and What We Don’t.” Pp. 3-15 in Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrial Nations, edited by N.E. Adler, M. Marmot, B.S. McEwen, and J. Stewart. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 896.Google Scholar
  3. Barker, D.J.P. 1991. “The Foetal and Infant Origins of Inequalities in Health in Britain.” Journal of Public Health Medicine 13(2):64–68.Google Scholar
  4. — 1998. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, D.J. and C.N. Martyn. 1992. “The Maternal and Fetal Origins of Cardiovascular Disease.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46(1):8–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behrman, J.R. 1993. “The Economic Rationale for Investing in Nutrition in Developing Countries.” World Development 21:1749–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrman, J.R. and A.B. Deolalikar. 1990. “Health, Nutrition and Macro-Economic Adjustment With a Human Face: The Analytical Basis for the UNICEF Advocacy and a Case Comparison.” Pp. 330–55 in What We Know About the Health Transition: The Cultural, Social and Behavioural Determinants of Health, edited by J. Caldwell. Canberra: Australian National University.Google Scholar
  8. Behrman, J.R. and M.R. Rosenzweig. 2002. “The Returns to Increasing Body Weight.” PIER Working Paper 01-052. Penn Institute for Economic Research, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  9. — 2004. “Returns to Birthweight.” Review of Economics and Statistics 86:586–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bianchi, S.M. 2000. “Maternal Employment and Time With Children: Dramatic Change or Surprising Continuity?” Demography 37:401–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, D., J.N. Morris, C. Smith, and P. Townsend. 1980. “Inequalities in Health: Report of a Research Working Group.” Department of Health and Social Security, London.Google Scholar
  12. Blackwell, D.L., M.D. Hayward, and E.M. Crimmins. 2001. “Does Childhood Health Affect Chronic Morbidity in Later Life?” Social Science and Medicine 52:1269–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blane, D., G. Davey Smith, and M. Bartley. 1993. “Social Selection: What Does It Contribute to Social Class Differences in Health?” Sociology of Health and Illness 15(1):1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowles, S., H. Gintis, and M. Osborne. 2000. “The Determinants of Earnings: Skills, Preferences, and Schooling.” Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts—Amherst, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  15. — 2001. “The Determinants of Earnings: A Behavioral Approach.” Journal of Economic Literature 39:1137–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. — eds. 2005. Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Case, A., A. Fertig, and C. Paxson. 2005. “The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance.” Journal of Health Economics 24:365–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Case, A., D. Lubotsky, and C. Paxson. 2002. “Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient.” American Economic Review 92:1308–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cawley, J. 2000. “Body Weight and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes.” NBER Working Paper 7841. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  20. Chadwick, L. 2001. “Intergenerational Income Mobility Among Daughters in the NLS.” Unpublished manuscript. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Chadwick, L. and G. Solon. 2002. “Intergenerational Income Mobility Among Daughters.” The American Economic Review 92:335–44.Google Scholar
  22. Chandola, T., M. Bartley, A. Sacker, C. Jenkinson, and M. Marmot. 2003. “Health Selection in the Whitehall II Study, UK.” Social Science and Medicine 56:2059–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Charles, K. Kofi and E. Hurst. 2003. “The Correlation of Wealth Across Generations.” Journal of Political Economy 111:1115–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cherlin, A.J. 1999. “Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children’s Well-being, and Social Science.” Demography 36:421–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conley, D. and N.G. Bennett. 2000a. “Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Life Chances.” American Sociological Review 65:458–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. — 2000b. “Race and the Inheritance of Low Birth Weight.” Social Biology 47(1–2):77–93.Google Scholar
  27. — 2001. “Birth Weight and Income: Interactions Across Generations.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 42:450–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cunha, F., J. Heckman, L. Lochner, and D. Masterov. 2005. “Interpreting the Evidence of Life Cycle Skill Formation.” NBER Working Paper 11331. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  29. Currie, J. and R. Hyson. 1999. “Is the Impact of Health Shock Cushioned by Socioeconomic Status? The Case of Low Birthweight.” The American Economic Review 89:245–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Currie, J. and E. Moretti. 2005. “Biology as Destiny: Short and Long-Run Determinants of Intergenerational Transmission of Birth Weight.” NBER Working Paper 11567. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  31. Currie, J. and M. Stabile. 2003. “Socioeconomic Status and Health: Why Is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children?” American Economic Review 93:1813–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Davey Smith, G., ed. 2003. Health Inequalities: Lifecourse Approaches. Bristol, United Kingdom: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  33. Davey Smith, G., C. Hart, D. Blane, and D. Hole. 1998. “Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions in Childhood and Cause Specific Adult Mortality: Prospective Observational Study.” British Medical Journal 316:1631–35.Google Scholar
  34. Downey, D.B., P.T. Von Hippel, and B.A. Broh. 2004. “Are Schools the Great Equalizer? Cognitive Inequality During the Summer Months and the School Year.” American Sociological Review 69:613–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dubois, L. and M. Girard. 2001. “Social Position and Nutrition: A Gradient Relationship in Canada and the USA.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55:366–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunifon, R., G. Duncan, and J. Brooks-Gunn. 2004. “The Long-Term Impact of Parental Organization and Efficiency.” Pp. 85–118 in Family Investments in Children’s Potential: Resources and Parenting Behaviors That Promote Success, edited by A. Kalil and T. DeLeire. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Elbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  37. Elo, I.T. and S.H. Preston. 1992. “Effects of Early-Life Conditions on Adult Mortality: A Review.” Population Index 58:186–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. — 1996. “Educational Differentials in Mortality: United States 1979–85.” Social Science and Medicine 42(1):47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Farkas, G. 2003. “Cognitive Skills and Noncognitive Traits and Behaviors in Stratification Processes.” Annual Review of Sociology 29:541–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feldman, J.J., D.M. Makuc, J.C. Kleinman, and J. Cornoni-Huntley. 1989. “National Trends in Educational Differentials in Mortality.” American Journal of Epidemiology 129:919–33.Google Scholar
  41. Ferrie, J.P. 2005. “The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States Since 1850.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19:199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fertig, A.R. 2003. “Trends in Intergenerational Earnings Mobility in the United States.” Journal of Income Distribution 12:108–30.Google Scholar
  43. Fogel, R.W. 2004. The Escape From Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100: Europe, America and the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Fogel, R.W. and D.L. Costa. 1997. “A Theory of Technophysio Evolution, With Some Implications for Forecasting Population, Health Care Costs, and Pension Costs.” Demography 34:49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fox, A.J., P.O. Goldblatt, and A.M. Adelstein. 1982. “Selection and Mortality Differentials.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 36:69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fox, A.J., P.O. Goldblatt, and D.R. Jones. 1985. “Social Class Mortality Differentials: Artifact, Selection or Life Circumstances?” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 39(1):1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glewwe, P., H.G. Jacoby, and E.M. King. 2001. “Early Childhood Nutrition and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.” Journal of Public Economics 81:345–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gorman, B. 2002. “Birth Weight and Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Causal Relationship or Selection?” Social Biology 49(1–2):13–34.Google Scholar
  49. Grawe, N.D. and C. Mulligan. 2002. “Economic Interpretations of Intergenerational Correlations.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(3):45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grusky, D.B. and T.A. DiPrete. 1990. “Recent Trends in the Process of Stratification.” Demography 27:617–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hauser, R.M. 1998. “Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the United States: Measures, Differentials, and Trends.” CDE Working Paper 98-12. Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin—Madison.Google Scholar
  52. Hayward, M.D. and B.K. Gorman. 2004. “The Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early-Life Social Conditions on Men’s Mortality.” Demography 41:87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heckman, J., J. Hsee, and Y. Rubinstein. 2000. “The GED Is a Mixed Signal.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Economic Association, Boston, January.Google Scholar
  54. Heckman, J. and Y. Rubinstein. 2001. “The Importance of Noncognitive Skills: Lessons From the GED Testing Program.” American Economic Review 91:145–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hertzman, C. 1994. “The Lifelong Impact of Childhood Experiences: A Population Health Perspective.” Daedalus 123(4):167–80.Google Scholar
  56. Hobcraft, J. 2001. “Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality in a British Birth Cohort.” Invited paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, March 29–31, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  57. Hobcraft, J. and F. Mensah. n.d. “The Childhood Origins of Adult Health and Well-being: Do Cohort and Gender Matter?” Unpublished manuscript. Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of York.Google Scholar
  58. Honig, A.S. and F.A. Oski. 1984. “Solemnity: A Clinical Risk Index for Iron Deficiency Infants.” Early Child Development and Care 16:69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hout, M. 2005. “Educational Progress for African-Americans and Latinos in the United States From the 1950s to the 1990s: The Interaction of Ancestry and Class.” Pp. 262–87 in Ethnicity, Social Mobility, and Public Policy, edited by G.C. Loury, T. Modood, and S.M. Teles. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hyson, R. 2003. “Differences in Intergenerational Mobility Across the Earnings Distribution.” Working Paper No. 364. Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  61. Illsley, R. 1955. “Social Class Selection and Class Differences in Relation to Stillbirths and Infant Death.” British Medical Journal 2:1520–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. — 1986. “Occupational Class, Selection and the Production of Inequalities in Health.” Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs 2(2):151–65.Google Scholar
  63. Jencks, C. 1979. Who Gets Ahead? New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  64. Johnson, P. and H. Reed. 1996. “Intergenerational Mobility Among the Rich and the Poor: Results From the National Child Development Survey.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 12(1): 127–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnson, R.C. and R.F. Schoeni. 2006. “Early-Life Events and Health and Labor Market Outcomes in Adulthood.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Labor Economists, May 5, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  66. Judge, T.A. and D.A. Cable. 2004. “The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model.” Journal of Applied Psychology 89:428–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Katz, L.F. 1999. “Changes in the Wage Structure and Earnings Inequality.” Pp. 1463–55 in Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3A, edited by O. Ashenfelter and D. Card. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  68. Katz, L.F and K.M. Murphy. 1992. “Changes in Relative Wages, 1963–1987: Supply and Demand Factors.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 107(1):35–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kleinman, R.E., J.M. Murphy, M. Little, M. Pagnao, C.A. Wehler, K. Regal, and M.S. Jellinek. 1998. “Hunger in Children in the United States: Potential Behavior and Emotional Correlates.” Pediatrics 101:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Knudsen, E.I. 2004. “Sensitive Periods in the Development of the Brain and Behavior.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16:1412–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuh, D. and Y. Ben-Shlomo, eds. 1997. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Kuh, D., M. Richards, R. Hardy, S. Butterworth, and M.E.J. Wadsworth. 2004. “Childhood Cognitive Ability and Deaths up Until Middle Age: A Post-war Birth Cohort Study.” International Journal of Epidemiology 33:408–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lauderdale, D.S. 2001. “Education and Survival: Birth Cohort, Period, and Age Effects.” Demography 38:551–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lozoff, B.E., N.K. Klein, E.C. Nelson, D.K. McLish, M. Manuel, and M.E. Chacon. 1998. “Behavior of Infants With Iron Deficiency Anemia.” Child Development 69(1):24–36.Google Scholar
  75. Lynch, S.M. Forthcoming. “Explaining Life Course and Cohort Variation in the Relationship Between Education and Health: The Role of Income.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior.Google Scholar
  76. Manor, O., S. Matthews, and C. Power. 2003. “Health Selection: The Role of Inter- and Intra-Generational Mobility on Social Inequalities in Health.” Social Science and Medicine 57: 2217–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mare, R. and A. Palloni. 1988. “Couple Models for Socioeconomic Effects on the Mortality of Older Persons.” CDE Working Paper 88-07. Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
  78. Mathews, T.J., and M.F. MacDorman. 2006. “Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2003 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.” National Vital Statistics Reports 54(16). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  79. Mathews, T.J., S.J. Ventura, S.C. Curtin, and J.A. Martin. 1998. “Births of Hispanic Origin, 1989–95.” Monthly Vital Statistics Report 46(6). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  80. Mayer, S.E. and L.M. Lopoo. 2005. “Has the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Status Changed?” Journal of Human Resources 40(1):169–85.Google Scholar
  81. Mayer, S.E. and C. Jencks. 1993. “Recent Trends in Economic Inequality in the United States: Income vs. Expenditures vs. Material Well-being.” Pp. 121–203 in Poverty and Prosperity in the U.S.A. in the Late Twentieth Century, edited by D. Papademitriou and E. Wolff. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  82. Mazumder, B. 2005. “Fortunate Sons: New Estimates of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States Using Social Security Earnings Data.” Review of Economics and Statistics 87:235–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McDonough, P., G. Duncan, D. Williams, and J. House. 1997. “Income Dynamics and Adult Mortality in the United States, 1972–1989.” American Journal of Public Health 87:1476–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McLanahan, S. 2004. “Diverging Destinies: How Children Are Faring Under the Second Demographic Transition.” Demography 41:607–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Meaney, M.J. 2001. “Maternal Care, Gene Expression, and the Transmission of Individual Differences in Stress Reactivity Across Generations.” Annual Review of Neuroscience 24:1161–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Michael, R.T. 2004. “Family Influences on Children’s Verbal Ability.” Pp. 49–83 in Family Investments in Children’s Potential: Resources and Parenting Behaviors that Promote Success, edited by A. Kalil and T. DeLeire. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  87. Miller, J.E. and S. Korenman. 1994. “Poverty and Children’s Nutritional Status in the United States.” American Journal of Epidemiology 140:233–43.Google Scholar
  88. Moss, P. and C. Tilly. 1996. “‘Soft’ Skills and Race: An Investigation of Black Men’s Employment Problems.” Work and Occupations 23:252–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mulligan, C. 1999. “Galton Versus Human Capital Approaches to Inheritance.” Journal of Political Economy 107:S184-S224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Murphy, M. 1983. “The Life Course of Individuals in the Family: Describing Static and Dynamic Aspects of the Contemporary Family.” Office of Population Censuses and Surveys Occasional Paper No. 31, pp. 50–70.Google Scholar
  91. National Research Council. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  92. Nokes, C., C. van den Bosch, and D. Bundy. 1998. The Effects of Iron Deficiency and Anemia on Mental and Motor Performance, Educational Achievement, and Behavior in Children. Washington, DC: International Nutritional Anemia Consulting Group.Google Scholar
  93. O’Brien Caughy, M. 1996. “Health and Environmental Effects on the Academic Readiness of School Age Children.” Developmental Psychology 32:515–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Osborne Groves, M. 2005. “Personality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Status.” Pp. 208–31 in Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success, edited by S. Bowles, H. Gintis, and M. Osborne Groves. Russell Sage Foundation and Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Palloni, A., C. Milesi, R. White, and A. Turner. 2006. “Early Childhood Health, Reproduction of Economic Inequalities and the Persistence of Health and Mortality Differentials.” Paper presented at the International Seminar on Early Life Conditions, Social Mobility and Other Factors that Influence Survival to Old Age, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Lund, Sweden, June 8–10.Google Scholar
  96. Persico, N., A. Postlewaite, and D. Silverman. 2004. “The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height.” Journal of Political Economy 112:1019–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Popkin, B.M., M.K. Richards, and C.A. Montiero. 1996. “Stunting Is Associated With Overweight in Children of Four Nations That Are Undergoing the Nutrition Transition.” Journal of Nutrition 126:3009–16.Google Scholar
  98. Power, C., O. Manor, and A.J. Fox. 1990. “Health in Childhood and Social Inequalities in Health in Young Adults.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society) 153(1): 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. — 1991. Health and Class: The Early Years. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  100. Power, C. and S. Matthews. 1997. “Origins of Health Inequalities in a National Population Sample.” Lancet 350:1584–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Power, C., S. Matthews, and O. Manor. 1996. “Inequalities in Self Rated Health in the 1958 Birth Cohort: Lifetime Social Circumstances or Social Mobility?” British Medical Journal 313(7055):449–53.Google Scholar
  102. Prager, K. 1994. “Infant Mortality by Birthweight and Other Characteristics: United States, 1985 Birth Cohort.” Vital and Health Statistics Series 20, No. 24. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  103. Preston, S.H. 1984. “Children and the Elderly: Divergent Paths for America’s Dependents.” Demography 21:435–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Preston, S.H. and I.T. Elo. 1995. “Are Educational Differentials in Adult Mortality Increasing in the United States?” Journal of Aging and Health 7:476–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Preston, S.H., I.T. Elo, A. Foster, and H. Fu. 1998. “Reconstructing the Size of the African-American Population by Age and Sex: 1930–1990.” Demography 35:1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Preston, S.H. and P. Taubman. 1994. “Socioeconomic Differences in Adult Mortality and Health Status.” Pp. 279–318 in The Demography of Aging, edited by L. Martin and S. Preston. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  107. Register, C.A. and D.R. Williams. 1990. “Wage Effects of Obesity Among Young Workers.” Social Science Quarterly 71:130–41Google Scholar
  108. Rogot, E., P.D. Sorlie, N.J. Johnson, and C. Schmitt. 1992. A Study of 1.3 Million Persons by Demographic, Social and Economic Factors: 1979–1985. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  109. Ross, C.E. and C. Wu. 1995. “The Links Between Education and Health.” American Sociological Review 60:719–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schultz, T.P. 2005. “Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence From Low-Income Countries.” Center Discussion Paper No. 903. Economic Growth Center, Yale University.Google Scholar
  111. Selowsky, M. and L. Taylor. 1973. The Economics of Malnourished Children: An Example of Disinvestment in Human Capital.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 22(1):17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith, J. 1999. “Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation Between Health and Economic Status.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 13(2):145–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Solon, G.R. 1992. “Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States.” American Economic Review 82:393–408.Google Scholar
  114. Sorlie, P.D., E. Backlund, and J. Keller. 1995. “U.S. Mortality by Economic, Demographic, and Social Characteristics: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” American Journal of Public Health 85:949–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Spittel, M.L. 2003. “A Study of Inequalities in Health: The Role of Wealth Differences and Social Context.” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
  116. Stern, J. 1983. “Mobility and the Interpretation of Social Class Mortality Differentials.” Journal of Social Policy 12(1):27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stormer, A. and G.G. Harrison. 2003. “Does Household Food Security Affect Cognitive and Social Development of Kindergartners?” Discussion Paper No. 1276-03. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
  118. Strauss, R.S. and W.H. Dietz. 1998. “Growth and Development of Term Children Born With Low Birth Weight: Effects of Genetic and Environmental Factors.” Journal of Pediatrics 133(1): 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Suomi, S.J. 1999. “Developmental Trajectories, Early Experiences, and Community Consequences.” Pp. 185–201 in Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations: Social, Biological, and Educational Dynamics, edited by D.P. Keating and C. Hertzman. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  120. Taubman, P.J. 1975. Sources of Inequality in Earnings: Personal Skills, Random Events, Preferences Toward Risk and Other Occupational Characteristics. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  121. Thomas, D., C. McKelvey, and B. Sikoki. 2006. “Immediate and Longer-Term Effects of Health on Socioeconomic Success.” Presented at the 2006 annual meetings of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, March 30–April 2.Google Scholar
  122. Thomas, D. and J. Strauss. 1997. “Health and Wages: Evidence on Men and Women in Urban Brazil.” Journal of Econometrics 77:159–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division. 2005. “Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2001 (Table IE-1).” Available online at http:// Scholar
  124. Vaupel, J., K. Manton, and E. Stallard. 1979. “The Impact of Heterogeneity in Individual Frailty on the Dynamics of Mortality.” Demography 16:439–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wadsworth, M.E.J. 1986. “Serious Illness in Childhood and Its Association With Later-Life Achievement.” Pp. 50–75 in Class and Health, edited by R.G. Wilkinson. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  126. Wright, E.O. 1980. “Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of Class Structure.” Politics and Society 9:323–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Palloni
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Demography and EcologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadison

Personalised recommendations