Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 66, Issue 3, pp 297–314 | Cite as

Customized Spectral Libraries for Effective Mineral Exploration: Mining National Mineral Collections

  • Jeanne B. PercivalEmail author
  • Sean A. Bosman
  • Eric G. Potter
  • Jan M. Peter
  • Alexandra B. Laudadio
  • Ashley C. Abraham
  • Daniel A. Shiley
  • Chris Sherry
Article

Abstract

Infrared (Visible-Near Infrared-Shortwave Infrared (VNIR-SWIR)) spectroscopy is a cost-effective technique for mineral identification in the field. Modern hand-held spectrometers are equipped with on-board spectral libraries that enable rapid, qualitative analysis of most minerals and facilitate recognition of key alteration minerals for exploration. Spectral libraries can be general or customized for specific mineral deposit environments. To this end, careful collection of spectra in a controlled environment on pure specimens of key minerals was completed using the National Mineral Reference Collection (NMC) of the Geological Survey of Canada. The spectra collected from specimens in the ‘Kodama Clay Collection’ were processed using spectral plotting software and each new example was validated before being added to a group of spectra considered for incorporation into the on-board library of the handheld ASD-TerraSpec Halo near-infrared (NIR) mineral identification instrument. Spectra from an additional suite of mineral samples of the NMC containing REE, U, Th, and/or Nb are being prepared for a new, publicly available spectral library. These minerals commonly occur in carbonatite or alkali intrusive deposits, and as such will assist in the exploration for critical metals.

Key Words

ASD-TerraSpec Clay Minerals Infrared Spectroscopy National Mineral Reference Collection Near Infrared Optical Reflectance Spectroscopy REE-bearing Minerals Shortwave Infrared 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agar B. and Coulter D. (2007) Remote sensing for mineral exploration — A decade perspective 1997–2007. Pp 109–136 in: Exploration in the New Millennium, Proceedings of the Fifth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration (B. Milkereit, editor), Exploration’07, Toronto (Sept. 2007) (https://doi.org/www.dmec.ca/ex07-dvd/E07/proceedings.html).Google Scholar
  2. ASD Inc. (2013) ASD TerraSpec Mineral Analyzer opens new uranium exploration potential in the Athabasca Basin. https://doi.org/cdn2.hubspot.net/hub/45853/file-33386196-pdf/docs/uravan_case_study.pdf (Accessed May 2, 2018).Google Scholar
  3. Bedini, E. (2017) The use of hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral exploration: A review. Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, 7, https://doi.org/periodicos.ufpe.br/revistas/jhrs/ article/view/25065
  4. Berger, B.R. (1986) Descriptive model of epithermal quartzalunite Au. P. 158 in: Mineral Deposit Models (D.P. Cox and D.A. Singer, editors), U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693, Reston, Virginia, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Boesche, N.K., Rogas, C., Lubitz, C., Brell, M., Herrmann, S., Mielke, C., Tonn, S., Appelt, O., Altenberger, U., and Kaufmann, H. (2015) Hyperspectral REE (rare earth element) mapping of outcrops — applications for neodymium detection. Remote Sensing, 7, 5160–5186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosman, S.A. and Percival, J.B. (2014) Spectral reflectance data and interpretation of Athabasca Basin drillholes, Saskatchewan (NTS 64L, 74F to 74K, and 74N to 74P). Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Data File Report D34 (https://doi.org/publications.gov.sk.ca/details.cfm?p=82130).Google Scholar
  7. Chang, Z.S., Hedenquist, J.W., White, N.C., Cooke, D.R., Roach, M., Deyell, C.L., Garcia, J., Jr., Gemmell, J.B., McKnight, S., and Cuison, A.L. (2011) Exploration tools for linked porphyry and epithermal deposits: Example from the Mankayan intrusion-centered Cu-Au district, Luzon, Philippines. Economic Geology, 106, 1365–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, R.N. (2004) Spectroscopy of rocks and minerals, and principles of spectroscopy. Pp. 17–55 in: Infrared Spectroscopy in Geochemistry, Exploration Geochemistry, and Remote Sensing (P.L. King, M.S. Ramsey, and G.A. Swayze, editors). Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course, 33.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, R.N., King, T.V.V., Klejwa, M., and Swayze, G.A. (1990) High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95 (B8), 12,653–12,680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coblentz, W.W. (1906) Radiometric investigations of infrared absorption and reflection spectra. National Bureau of Standards (U.S.) Bulletin, 2, 457–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooke, D.R., Hollings, P., Wilkinson, J.J., and Tosdal, R. (2014) Geochemistry of porphry deposits. Pp. 357–381 in: Treatise on Geochemistry, second edition (H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian, editors). v. 13, Elsevier, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corriveau, L., Williams, P.J., and Mumin, A.H. (2010) Alteration vectors to IOCG mineralization — from uncharted terranes to deposits. Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes 20, pp. 89–110.Google Scholar
  13. Corriveau, L., Montreuil, J.-F., and Potter, E.G. (2016) Alteration facies linkages amongst IOCG, IOA and affiliated deposits from the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, Canada. Economic Geology, 111, 2045–2072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Date, J., Watanabe, Y., and Saeki, Y. (1983) Zonal alteration around the Fukazawa Kuroko deposits, Akita Prefecture, northern Japan. Economic Geology Monograph, 5, 365–386.Google Scholar
  15. Ducart, D.F., Crósta, A.P., Filho, C.R.S., and Coniglio, J. (2006) Alteration mineralogy at the Cerro La Mina epithermal prospect, Patagonia, Argentina: Field mapping, short-wave infrared spectroscopy, and ASTER images. Economic Geology, 101, 981–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duke, E.F. (1994) Near infrared spectra of muscovite, Tschermak substitution and metamorphic reaction progress: implications for remote sensing. Geology, 22, 621–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Earle, S. (1994) Application of reflectance spectrometry to analysis of Manitou Falls Formation samples. Unpublished Report, Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 22 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Earle, S. (1995) Quantitative reflectance spectrometry for analysis of the clay mineralogy of the Athabasca Basin rock samples. Unpublished Report, Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 7 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Earle, S. (1996) Evaluation of the reliability of mineral proportion estimates from PIMA-II reflectance spectrometer and MINSPEC1 program. Unpublished Report, Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 21 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Earle, S., Wheatley, K., and Wasyliuk, K. (1996) Application of reflectance spectroscopy to the assessment of alteration mineralogy in the Key Lake area. Pp. 109–123 in: Proceedings of Minexpo’ 96 Symposium, Advances in Saskatchewan Geology and Mineral Exploration (K.E. Ashton and C.T. Harper, editors). Special Publication No. 14, Saskatoon.Google Scholar
  21. Farmer, V.C. (editor) (1974) The Infrared Spectra of Minerals. Monograph 4, Mineralogical Society, London.Google Scholar
  22. Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V.T. (1997) Dana’s New Mineralogy — The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana. Eighth edition, entirely rewritten and greatly enlarged, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Goodfellow, W.D. and Lydon, J.W. (2007) Sedimentaryexhalative (SEDEX) deposits. Pp 163–183 in: Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposit types, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods (W.D. Goodfellow, editor). Special Publication 5, Mineral Deposits Division, Geological Association of Canada.Google Scholar
  24. Halley, S., Dilles, J.H., and Tosdal, R.M. (2015) Footprints: Hydrothermal alteration and geochemical dispersion around porphyry copper deposits. Society of Economic Geologists Newsletter, 100, 12–17.Google Scholar
  25. Harraden, C.L., McNulty, B.A., Gregory, M.J., and Lang, J.R. (2013) Shortwave infrared spectral analysis of hydrothermal alteration associated with the Pebble porphyry copper-goldmolybdenum deposit, Iliamna, Alaska. Economic Geology, 108, 483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hauff, P.L. (2005) Applied Reflectance Spectroscopy (users’ manual; version 4.1). Spectral International, Inc., Arvada, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
  27. Hauff, P. and Percival, J.B. (2006) Rapid in situ mineral analyses using field-portable SWIR spectrometers: Uranium and diamond examples. Geological Association of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Montreal, Program with Abstracts, 31, 64.Google Scholar
  28. Herrmann, W., Blake, M., Doyle, M., Huston, D., Kamprad, J., Merry, N., and Pontual, S. (2001) Short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral analysis of hydrothermal alteration zones associated with base metal sulfide deposits at Rosebery and Western Tharsis, Tasmania, and Highway-Reward, Queensland. Economic Geology, 96, 939–955.Google Scholar
  29. Hirschmugl, C. (2004) An introduction to infrared spectroscopy for geochemistry and remote sensing. Pp. 1–16 in: Infrared Spectroscopy in Geochemistry, Exploration Geochemistry, and Remote Sensing (P.L. King, M.S. Ramsey, and G.A. Swayze, editors). Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course, 33.Google Scholar
  30. Hoeve, J. and Quirt, D. (1984) Mineralization and host rock alteration in relation to clay mineral diagenesis and evolution of the Middle-Proterozoic, Athabasca basin, northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Saskatchewan Research Council, Technical Report 187, 187 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Hoeve, J. and Quirt, D. (1987) A stationary redox front as a critical factor in the formation of high-grade, unconformitytype uranium ores in the Athabasca basin, Saskatchewan, Canada. Bulletin de Minéralogie, 110, 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hunt, G.R. and Ashley, R.P. (1979) Spectra of altered rocks in the visible and near infrared. Economic Geology, 74, 1613–1629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hunt, G.R. and Salisbury, J.W. (1970) Visible and nearinfrared spectra of minerals and rocks: I. Silicate minerals. Modern Geology, 1, 283–300.Google Scholar
  34. Hunt, G.R. and Salisbury, J.W. (1971) Visible and nearinfrared spectra of minerals and rocks: II. Carbonates. Modern Geology, 2, 23–30.Google Scholar
  35. Hunt, G.R., Salisbury, J.W., and Lenhoff, C.J. (1971a) Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks: III. Oxides and hydroxides. Modern Geology, 2, 195–205.Google Scholar
  36. Hunt, G.R., Salisbury, J.W., and Lenhoff, C.J. (1971b) Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks: IV. Sulphides and sulphates. Modern Geology, 3, 1–14.Google Scholar
  37. Hunt, G.R., Salisbury, J.W., and Lenhoff, C.J. (1971c) Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks: V. Halides, phosphates, arsenates, vanadates and borates. Modern Geology, 3, 121–132.Google Scholar
  38. Hunt, G.R., Salisbury J.W., and Lenhoff, C.J. (1973) Visible and near infrared spectra of minerals and rocks: VI. Additional silicates. Modern Geology, 4, 85–106.Google Scholar
  39. Huntington, J. and Laukamp, C. (2015) Drill core reflectance spectroscopy applied to the carbonatite hosted REE deposit at Cummins Range (Australia). SGA (Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits) 2015, August 24–27, Nancy, France, 1017–1019.Google Scholar
  40. Jefferson, C.W., Thomas, D., Quirt, D., Mwenifumbo, C.J., and IBrisbin, D. (2007a) Empirical models for Canadian unconformity-associated uranium deposits. Pp. 741–769 in: Proceedings of Exploration 07: Fifth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration (B. Milkereit, editor). Toronto.Google Scholar
  41. Jefferson, C.W., Thomas, D.J., Gandhi, S.S., Ramaekers, P., Delaney, G., Brisbin, D., Cutts, C., Quirt, D., Portella, P., and Olson, R.A. (2007b) Unconformity-associated uranium deposits of the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Pp. 273–305 in: Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposit-types, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods (W.D. Goodfellow, editor). Special Publication 5, Mineral Deposits Division, Geological Association of Canada.Google Scholar
  42. Kerr, A., Rafuse, H., Sparkes, G., Hinchey, J., and Sandeman, H. (2011) Visible/infrared spectroscopy (VIRS) as a research tool in economic geology: Background and pilot studies from Newfoundland and Labrador. Current Research, Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Report 11-1, 145–166.Google Scholar
  43. Kodama, H. (1985) Infrared spectra of minerals; reference guide to identification and characterization of minerals for the study of soils. Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Technical Bulletin 1985-1E, 197 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Kyser, K., Hiatt, E., Renac, C., Durocher, K., Holk, G., and Deckart, K. (2000) Diagenetic fluids in paleo- and meso- Proterozoic sedimentary basins and their implications for long protracted fluid histories. Pp. 225–262 in: Fluids and Basin Evolution (K. Kyser, editor). Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series, 28.Google Scholar
  45. Laakso, K., Rivard, B., Peter, J.M., White, H.P., Maloley, M., Harris, J., and Rogge, D. (2015) Application of airborne, laboratory, and field hyperspectral methods to mineral exploration in the Canadian arctic: recognition and characterization of volcanogenic massive sulfide-associated hydrothermal alteration in the Izok Lake deposit area, Nunavut, Canada. Economic Geology, 110, 925–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Laakso, K., Peter, J.M., Rivard, B., and White, H.P. (2016) Short-wave infrared spectral and geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal alteration at the Archean Izok Lake Zn- Cu-Pb-Ag volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Nunavut, Canada: Application in exploration target vectoring. Economic Geology, 111, 1223–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lau, I.C., Cudahy, T.J., Heinson, G., Mauger, A.J., and James, P.R. (2003) Practical applications of hyperspectral remote sensing in regolith research. Pp. 249–253 in: Advances in Regolith: Proceedings of the CRC LEME Regional Regolith Symposia (I.C. Roach, editor). Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Environments and Mineral Exploration (CRC LEME), Australia.Google Scholar
  48. Leach, D.L., Sangster, D.F., Kelley, K.D., Large, R.R., Garven, G., Allen, C.R., Gutzmer, J., and Walters, S. (2005) Sediment-hosted lead zinc deposits: A global perspective: Economic Geology, 100, 561–607.Google Scholar
  49. Leach, D.L., Taylor, R.D., Fey, D.L., Diehl, S.F., and Saltus, R.W. (2010) A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores, Chapter A of mineral deposit models for resource assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, and U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5070-A, Reston, Virginia, USA, pp. 1–52.Google Scholar
  50. Lemière, B. and Uvarova, Y. (2017) Status and new developments in field portable geochemical techniques and on-site technologies for mineral exploration. Sixth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration, Exploration’ 17, Toronto (https://doi.org/www.exploration17.com/).Google Scholar
  51. Lyon, R.J.P. and Burns, E.A. (1963) Analysis of rocks and minerals by reflected infrared radiation. Economic Geology, 58, 274–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marel, H.W. and Beutelspacher, H. (1976) Atlas of Infrared Spectroscopy of Clay Minerals and their Admixtures. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  53. Mauger, A.J., Ehrig, K., Kontonikas-Charos, A., Ciobanu, C.L., Cook, N.J., and Kamenetsky, V.S. (2016) Alteration at the Olympic Dam IOCG-U deposit: insights into distal to proximal feldspar and phyllosilicate chemistry from infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 63 (8), 959–972.Google Scholar
  54. Neal, L.C., Wilkinson, J.J., Mason, P.J., and Chang, Z. (2018) Spectral characteristics of propylitic alteration minerals as a vectoring tool for porphyry copper deposits. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 184, 179–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Neave, D.A., Black, M., Riley, T.R., Gibson, S.A., Ferrier, G., Wall, F., and Broom-Fendley, S. (2016) On the feasibility of imaging carbonatite-hosted rare earth element deposits using remote sensing. Economic Geology, 111, 641–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Percival, J.B., Bell, K., and Torrance, J.K. (1993) Clay mineralogy and isotopic geochemistry of the alteration halo at the Cigar lake uranium deposit: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 30, 689–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Percival, J.B., Wasyliuk, K., Reif, T., Bernier, S., Drever, G., and Perkins, C.T. (2002) Mineralogical aspects of three drill cores along the McArthur River transect using a portable infrared spectrometer. In: Summary of Investigations 2002, Volume 2. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Sask. Industry and Resources, Miscellaneous Report 2002–4.1, 15 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Percival, J.B., Bosman, S.A., Potter, E.G., Ramaekers, P., Venance, K.E., Hunt, P.A., Davis, W., and Jefferson, C.W. (2013) Hydrothermal alteration in hydro-fractured Athabasca sandstone: distal expression of uranium mineralization? Exploration & Mining Geology (CIM) 21, 63–77.Google Scholar
  59. Percival, J.B., Olejarz, A.D., English, M.L.R., Belley, P.M., Flynn, T., Laudadio, A.B., and Stirling, J.A.R. (2016a) Spectral Library: The Kodama Clay Collection. Geological Survey of Canada Open File 7923.  https://doi.org/10.4095/297564.Google Scholar
  60. Percival, J.B., Potter, E.G., Lauzière, K., Ijewliw, O., Bilot, I., Hunt, P., English, M.L.R., Olejarz, A.D., Laudadio, A.B., Enright, A., Robillard, K.-L., and Corriveau, L. (2016b) Mineralogy, petrography and autoradiography of selected samples from the Contact Lake and NICO areas, Great Bear Magmatic Zone, Northwest Territories (IOCG-GEM Project). Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7755,  https://doi.org/10.4095/297677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Percival, J.B., Venance, K.E., Desbarats, A.J., Parsons, M.B., Bilot, I., Abraham, A., and Laudadio, A. (2017) Mineralogical signature of the St. Lawrence Columbium Mine at Oka, Québec. Geological Association of Canada- Mineralogical Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, 40, 304.Google Scholar
  62. Perry, S.L. (2004) Spaceborne and airborne remote sensing systems for mineral exploration — Case histories using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Pp. 227–240 in: Infrared Spectroscopy in Geochemistry, Exploration Geochemistry, and Remote Sensing (P.L. King, M.S. Ramsey, and G.A. Swayze, editors). Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course, 33.Google Scholar
  63. Peter, J.M., Layton-Matthews, D., Gadd, M.G., Gill, S., Baker, S., Plett, S., and Paradis, S. (2015) Application of visiblenear infrared and short wave infrared spectroscopy to sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposit exploration in the Selwyn Basin, Yukon. Pp. 152–172 in: Targeted Geoscience Initiative 4: Sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposits: processes and implications for exploration (S. Paradis, editor). Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7838.  https://doi.org/10.4095/296328.Google Scholar
  64. Potter, E.G., Montreuil, J.-F., Corriveau, L., and DeToni, A. (2013) Geology and hydrothermal alteration of the Fab Lake region, Northwest Territories; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7339.  https://doi.org/10.4095/292562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Quirt, D.H. (2010) Is illite still a pathfinder mineral for the geological environment of Athabasca unconformity-type uranium deposits? Program with Abstracts, GeoCanada2010, Calgary, May, 4 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Riegler, T., Lescuyer, J.-L., Wollenberg, P., Quirt, D., and Beaufort, D. (2014) Alteration related to uranium deposits in the Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend, Nunavut, Canada: New insights from petrography and clay mineralogy. The Canadian Mineralogist, 52, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rowan, L.C., Kingston, M.J., and Crowley, J.K. (1986) Spectral reflectance of carbonatites and related alkali igneous rocks: selected samples from four North American localities. Economic Geology, 81, 857–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ruitenbeek, F.J.A., Cudahy, T., van der Meer, F.D., and Hale, M. (2012) Characterization of the hydrothermal systems associated with Archean VMS-mineralization at Panorama, Western Australia, using hyperspectral, geochemical and geothermometric data. Ore Geology Reviews, 45, 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sarrazin, P., Blake, D., Feldman, S., Chipera, S., Vaniman, D., and Bish, D. (2005) Field deployment of a portable X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence instrument on Mars analog terrain. Powder Diffraction, 20, 128–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schneider, S., Murphy, R.J., Monteiro, S.T., and Nettleton, E. (2009) On the development of a hyperspectral library for autonomous mining systems. In: Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA). Sydney, Australia. (https://doi.org/www.araa.asn.au/conferences/acra-2009/table-of-contents/ accessed Dec. 6, 2017).Google Scholar
  71. Shanks, W.C., III (2012) Hydrothermal alteration-volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model. U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report, 2010-5070, 167–180.Google Scholar
  72. Sherry, C. (2017) Advancements in portable NIR mineral spectroscopy (2007-2017). Sixth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration, Exploration’17, Toronto (https://doi.org/www.exploration17.com/).Google Scholar
  73. Simmons, S.F., White, N.C., and John, D.A. (2005) Geological characteristics of epithermal precious and base metal deposits. Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume 1905–2005, 485–522.Google Scholar
  74. Somers, A. and Sholtz, N. (2017) The application of hand held laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to lithium exploration: A case study. Presented in Workshop 9: Status and New Developments in Field Portable Geochemical Techniques and Site Technologies for Mineral Exploration. Sixth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration, Exploration’17, Toronto (https://doi.org/www.exploration17.com/).Google Scholar
  75. Steacy, H.R. and Williams, R. (1976) Canada’s Mineral Collection: the origins, display aspects and research significance of the National Mineral Collection. GEOS (Winter), 2–4, Quarterly Publication of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada (now Natural Resources Canada).Google Scholar
  76. Stirling, J.A.R., Jonasson, I.R., Herd, R.K., Dougherty, J., Belley, P., and Therriault, A. (2011) The National Mineral Collection of Canada celebrates its golden anniversary. Geological Association of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, 34, 212.Google Scholar
  77. Tappert, M.C., Rivard, B., Giles, D., Tappert, R., and Mauger, A. (2013) The mineral chemistry, near-infrared, and midinfrared reflectance spectroscopy of phengite from the Olympic Dam IOCG deposit, South Australia. Ore Geology Reviews, 53, 26–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Taylor, B.E. (2007) Epithermal gold deposits. Pp. 113–139 in: Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposit types, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods (W.D. Goodfellow, editor). Special Publication 5, Mineral Deposits Division, Geological Association of Canada.Google Scholar
  79. Thompson, A.J.B. and Thompson, J.F.H. (editors) (1996) Atlas of Alteration: A Field and Petrographic Guide to Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals. Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, 119 pp.Google Scholar
  80. Thompson, A.J.B., Hauff, P.L., and Robitaille, A.J. (1999) Alteration mapping in exploration: application of shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. Society Of Economic Geologists Newsletter, No. 39, 1, 16–27.Google Scholar
  81. Turner, D.J. (2015) Reflectance spectroscopy and imaging spectroscopy of rare earth element-bearing mineral and rock samples. PhD thesis, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, 293 pp.Google Scholar
  82. Turner, D.J., Rivard, B., and Groat, L.A. (2014) Visible and short-wave infrared reflectance spectroscopy of REE fluorocarbonates. American Mineralogist, 99, 1335–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Turner, D., Rivard, B., and Groat, L. (2015) Visible to shortwave infrared reflectance spectroscopy of rare earth element minerals. Pp. 219–229 in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Strategic and Critical Materials (G.J. Simandl and M. Neetz, editors). British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, British Columbia Geological Survey, Paper 2015-3.Google Scholar
  84. White, N.C. and Hedenquist, J.F. (1995) Epithermal gold deposits: Styles, characteristics, and exploration. Society of Economic Geologists Newsletter, 23, 1, 9–13.Google Scholar
  85. Yang, K., Huntington, J.F., Gemmell, J.B., and Scott, K.M. (2011) Variations in composition and abundance of white mica in the hydrothermal alteration system at Hellyer, Tasmania, as revealed by infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 108, 143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang, G., Wasyliuk, K., and Pan, Y. (2001) The characterization and quantitative analysis of clay minerals in the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan: Application of shortwave infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The Canadian Mineralogist, 39, 1347–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Clay Minerals Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne B. Percival
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sean A. Bosman
    • 2
  • Eric G. Potter
    • 1
  • Jan M. Peter
    • 1
  • Alexandra B. Laudadio
    • 3
  • Ashley C. Abraham
    • 3
  • Daniel A. Shiley
    • 4
  • Chris Sherry
    • 5
  1. 1.Geological Survey of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Saskatchewan Geological SurveyRegina, SaskatchewanCanada
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  4. 4.ASD Inc.-Malvern PanalyticalLongmontUSA
  5. 5.Consultant GeologistMorrisonUSA

Personalised recommendations