Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 672–676 | Cite as

Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxide Formed at the Earliest Weathering Stages of K-Feldspar

  • Motoharu Kawano
  • Katsutoshi Tomita
Article

Abstract

Weathering products formed on the surface of K-feldspar in Yakushima Island, Japan were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD confirmed that the weathering products were composed mainly of gibbsite and halloysite. SEM, TEM and EDX clearly showed formation of amorphous aluminum hydroxide exhibiting 2 distinct habits: 1) curled fibrous or circular forms less than 0.02 μm in diameter; and 2) a spherical habit less than 1.0 μm in diameter. The fibrous aluminum hydroxide exhibited curled fibrous forms or circular forms less than 0.02 μm in diameter and gave a diffuse electron diffraction halo. EDX indicated that the material consisted mainly of Al and very small amounts of Si and Fe. The spherical aluminum hydroxide also gave similar EDX and electron diffraction characteristics to the fibrous material. These fibrous and spherical aluminum hydroxides must be formed as a metastable phase in the earliest weathering stages, and transformed into a stable phase of gibbsite and halloysite as the reaction proceeded.

Key Words

Aluminum hydroxide Gibbsite Halloysite K-feldspar Weathering product 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen BL, Hajek BF. 1989. Mineral occurrence in soil environments. In: Dixon JB, Weed SB, editors. Minerals in soil environments. Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America, p 199–278.Google Scholar
  2. Anand RR, Gilkes RJ, Armitage TM, Hillyer JW. 1985. Feldspar weathering in lateritic saprolite. Clays Clay Miner 33:31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamhisel RI, Rich Cl. 1965. Gibbsite, bayerite, and nordstrandite formation as affected by anions, pH, and mineral surfaces. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 29:531–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brace R, Matijevic E. 1973. Aluminum hydrous oxide sols—I. J Inorg Chem 35:3691–3705.Google Scholar
  5. Casey WH, Westrich HR, Arnold GW. 1988. Surface chemistry of labradorite feldspar reacted with aqueous solutions at pH = 2, 3, and 12. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:2795–2807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Casey WH, Westrich HR, Arnold GW, Banfield JF. 1989. The surface chemistry of dissolving labradorite feldspar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:821–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chesworth W. 1972. The stability of gibbsite and boehmite at the surface of the earth. Clays Clay Miner 20:369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eggleton RA, Buseck PR. 1980. High resolution electron microscopy of feldspar weathering. Clays Clay Miner 28: 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Helgeson HC. 1971. Kinetics of mass transfer among silicates and aqueous solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 35: 421–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hellmann R, Eggleston CM, Hochella MF, Jr., Crerar DA. 1990. The formation of leached layers on albite surfaces during dissolution under hydrothermal conditions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:1267–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hochella MF, Jr., Ponader HB, Turner AM, Harris DW. 1988. The complexity of mineral dissolution as viewed by high resolution scanning Auger microscopy: Labradorite under hydrothermal conditions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52: 385–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hsu PH. 1966. Formation of gibbsite from aging hydroxyaluminum solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 30:173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hsu PH. 1989. Aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. In: Dixon JB, Weed SB, editors. Minerals in Soil Environments. Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America, p 331–378.Google Scholar
  14. Kawano M, and Tomita K. 1994. Growth of smectite from leached layer during experimental alteration of albite. Clays Clay Miner 42:7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lodding W. 1972. Conditions for the direct formation of gibbsite from K-feldspar-discussion. Am Miner 57:292–294.Google Scholar
  16. Matijevic E. 1985. Production of monodispersed colloidal particles. Ann Rev Mater Sci 15:483–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mogk DW, Locke WW, III. 1988. Application of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to naturally weathered hornblende. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:2537–2542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Muir IJ, Bancroft GM, Nesbitt HW. 1989. Characteristics of altered labradorite surfaces by SIMS and XPS. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:1235–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Muir IJ, Bancroft GM, Shotyk W, Nesbitt HW. 1990. A SIMS and XPS study of dissolving plagioclase. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2247–2256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nesbitt HW, Muir IJ. 1988. SIMS depth profiles of weathered plagioclase and processes affecting dissolved Al and Si in some acidic soil solutions. Nature 334:336–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nesbitt HW, Macrae ND, Shotyk W. 1991. Congruent and incongment dissolution of labradorite in dilute, acidic, salt solution. J Geol 99:429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nixon RA. 1979. Differences in incongruent weathering of plagioclase and microcline—cation leaching versus precipitates. Geology 7:221–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Petit J-C, Dran J-C, Paccagnella A, Della Mea G. 1989. Structural dependence of crystalline silicate hydration during aqueous dissolution. Earth Planet Sci Lett 93:292–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schoen R, Roberson EC. 1970. Structures of aluminum hydroxide and geochemical implication. Am Mineral 55:43–77.Google Scholar
  25. Shi JL, Gao JH, Lin ZX. 1989. Formation of monosized spherical aluminum hydroxide particles by urea method. Solid State Ionics 32/33:537–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shibata K, Nozawa T. 1968. K-Ar ages of Yakujima granite, Kyushu, Japan. Bull Geol Surv Japan 19:21–24.Google Scholar
  27. Taylor RM. 1987. Non-silicate oxides and hydroxides. In: Newman ACD, editor. Chemistry of clays and clay minerals. London: Mineralogical Society, p 129–201.Google Scholar
  28. Tazaki K. 1976. Scanning electron microscopic study of formation of gibbsite from plagioclase. Inst Thermal Spring Res, Okayama Univ Paper 45:11–24.Google Scholar
  29. Tazaki K. 1979. Micromorphology of halloysite produced by weathering of plagioclase in volcanic ash. In: Mortland MM, Farmer VC, editors. Proc Int Clay Conf, Oxford, 1978. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p 415–422.Google Scholar
  30. Tazaki K, Fyfe WS. 1987a. Formation of primitive clay precursors on K-feldspar under extreme leaching conditions. In: Schultz LG, van Olphen H, Mumpton FA, editors. Proc Inter Clay Conf, Denver, 1985. Bloomington, IN: The Clay Minerals Society, p 53–58.Google Scholar
  31. Tazaki K, Fyfe WS. 1987b. Primitive clay precursors formed on feldspar. Can J Earth Sci 24:506–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Violante A, Huang PM. 1985. Influence of inorganic and organic ligands on the formation of aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydrexides. Clays Clay Miner 33:181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Violante A, Huang PM. 1992. Effect of tartaric acid and pH on the nature and physicochemical properties of shortrange ordered aluminum precipitation products. Clays Clay Miner 40:462–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Violante A, Huang PM. 1993. Formation mechanism of aluminum hydroxide polymorphs. Clays Clay Miner 41:590–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Violante A, Gianffeda L, Violante P 1993. Effect of prolonged aging the transformation of short-range ordered aluminum precipitation products formed in the presence of organic and inorganic ligands. Clays Clay Miner 41:353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watson JHL, Vallejo-Freire A, Souza Santos P, Parsons J. 1957. The fine structure and properties of fibrous alumina. Kolloid-Z 154:4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilke BS, Schwertmann U, Murad E. 1978. An occurrence of polymorphic halloysite in granitic saprolite of the Bayerischer Wald, Germany. Clay Miner 13:67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Motoharu Kawano
    • 1
  • Katsutoshi Tomita
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Faculty of AgricultureKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of ScienceKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations