Associations between physical strength, cerebral function and mental health in independent-living elderly Japanese women
To evaluate the physical strength, cerebral function, and mental health conditions in elderly persons, and to examine the correlation between these functions.
The subjects were 151 independent-living elderly Japanese women, mean age 70 +/-5 years (+/-SD; range, 60 to 80 years), with normal abilities in daily life. The health check-up was conducted from April to May 1997. Physical strength was estimated by measuring seven activities. Cerebral functions were assessed by six sub-tests of the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). Their mental health status was measured by four sub-scales of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28.
The physical strenght and almost all of the cerebral functions decreased with age. Social dysfunction and severe depression on the GHQ sub-scales also worsened with age. Physical strength was strongly correlated with cerebral functions after adjusting for the confounding effect of aging. There were also interrelations between physical strength and mental health.
This study provided important information on the correlation between physical and mental status in elderly women. Future longitudinal studies with the intervention of physical training are required to determine whether a causal relationship exists between these factors.
Key wordsphysical strength cerebral function mental health GATB (General Aptitude Test Battery) GHQ (General Health Questionnaire)
- (1).Tajima K, Sugai Y, Miyazaki H, Fujita H, Suzuki S. Study on the validity of ADL assessment by Minsei-Iin of bed-ridden elderly cared for at home. Jpn. J. Public Health 1998; 45: 612–618 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- (5).Ebersole P, Hess P. Toward healthy aging. St. Louis. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1994.Google Scholar
- (7).Murrell SA, Himmelfarb S, Wright K. Prevalence of depression and its correlates in older adults. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1982; 117: 173–185.Google Scholar
- (10).Ohta Y, Katsuno K. The study on association between mental health and bio-psycho-social factors in the aged. Jpn. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1991; 20: 1227–1233. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (19).Mathiowetz V, Kashman N, Volland G, Weber K, Dowe M, Rogers S. Grip and pinch strength: normative data for adults. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 1985; 66: 69–74.Google Scholar
- (20).Balady GJ, Berra KA, Golding LA, Gordon NF, Mahler DA, Myers JN, et al. Aesm’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: A Wolters Kluwer Company, 2000.Google Scholar
- (22).Desrosiers J, Bravo G, Hebert R, Dutil E, Mercier L. Validation of the box and block test as a measure of dexterity of elderly people: reliability, validity, and norms studies. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 1994; 75: 751–755.Google Scholar
- (24).Eto F, Harasawa M, Hirai S. Hand dexterity related to age: pegboard test as indicator of aging and brain dysfunction. Jpn. J. Geriatr. 1983; 20: 405–409 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- (25).Katoh S, Simogaki H, Onodera A, Ueda H, Oikawa K, Ikeda K, et al. Development of the revised version of Hasegawa’s Dementia Scale (HDS-R). Jpn. J. Geriatr. Psychiatr. 1991; 2: 1339–1347 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- (28).Ikejiri Y, Shinosaki K, Nishikawa T, Takeda M. Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease in the early stage. Jpn. J. Psychiatr. Treatment. 2001; 16: 429–432 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- (31).Kish GB, Cheney TM. Impaired abilities in alcoholism measured by the General Aptitude Test Battery. Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 1969; 30: 384–388.Google Scholar
- (32).Sasaki N, Kakigi S. Effects of aging on psychological and physiological function: Differences in tree test, GHQ (General Health Questionnaire), aspiration task, and cardiovascular parameters. Jpn. J. Psychol. 1998; 69: 229–234 (in Japanese).Google Scholar