Predictive Factors for Residual Disease After Conization in Cervical Cancer



The aim of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for the presence of residual disease after conization followed by definitive surgery in cervical cancer, and suggest a margin distance threshold that could predict residual disease.


We retrospectively analyzed a series of 42 patients with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent primary conization before definitive surgical treatment from March 2009 to May 2020. All conization specimens were reviewed for endocervical, ectocervical, and radial margins. Cases with residual disease in magnetic resonance imaging before definitive surgery were excluded.


Thirty-three (78.6%) patients underwent hysterectomies and 9 (21.4%) trachelectomies ± lymph node staging. Twelve (28.6%) cases were stage IA1, 5 (11.8%) cases were stage IA2, 13 (31%) cases were stage IB1, 11 (26.2%) cases were stage IB2, and 1 (2.4%) case was stage IIIC1 [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2019]. We found residual disease in 17 (40.4%) surgical specimens. Of the 20 patients with negative margins, there were still 3 (15%) cases with residual disease. Conversely, residual disease was identified in 14 (63.6%) of the 22 patients with positive cone margins (p = 0.001). Tumor size [odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.33] and positive endocervical margin status (OR 33.6, 95% CI 3.85–293.3) were related to a higher risk of residual disease in multivariate analysis. Notably, all patients with tumors larger than 2 cm had residual disease, in contrast to 29.4% in lesions up to 2 cm (p = 0.002).


We found that tumor size and positive margin were predictive factors for residual disease. We could not suggest a reliable minimum margin distance threshold that could predict residual disease.

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GB, HM, TPD, GBov: study concept and design; TPD, CCF, GB, HM, BTG, GBov: data acquisition; GB, LYK, LDB, BTG, APGG: quality control of data; GB, LDB, LBF, APGG, GBov: data analysis and interpretation; GB, TPD, AABAC: statistical analysis; TPD, GB, AABAC; GBov: manuscript preparation and editing; All authors: manuscript review

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Correspondence to Glauco Baiocchi MD, PhD.

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Glauco Baiocchi, Thiago Pereira Diniz, Graziele Bovolim, Bruna Tirapelli Gonçalves, Lillian Yuri Kumagai, Henrique Mantoan, Carlos Chaves Faloppa, Andrea Paiva Gadelha Guimaraes, Alexandre Andre Balieiro Anastacio da Costa, Levon Badiglian-Filho, and Louise De Brot declare no conflicts of interest.

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Baiocchi, G., Diniz, T.P., Bovolim, G. et al. Predictive Factors for Residual Disease After Conization in Cervical Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol (2021).

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