Impact of Perioperative Blood Transfusions on Outcomes After Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: A Propensity-Matched Analysis

Abstract

Background

Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a major operation frequently necessitating red blood cell transfusion. Using multi-institutional data from the U.S. HIPEC Collaborative, this study sought to determine the association of perioperative allogenic blood transfusion (PABT) with perioperative outcomes after CRS/HIPEC.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients who underwent CRS/HIPEC for peritoneal surface malignancy between 2000 and 2017. Propensity score-matching was performed to mitigate bias. Univariate analysis was used to compare demographic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. Factors independently associated with PABT were identified using multivariate analysis.

Results

The inclusion criteria were met by 1717 patients, 510 (29.7%) of whom required PABT. The mean Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) of our cohort was 14.8 ± 9.3. Propensity score-matching showed an independent association between PABT and postoperative risk of pleural effusion, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, enteric fistula formation, Clavien-Dindo grades 3 and 4 morbidity, longer hospital stay, and reoperation (all P < 0.05 in the multivariate analysis). Compared with the patients who received 1 to 5 red blood cell (RBC) units, the patients who received more than 5 units had a greater risk of renal impairment, a longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and more postoperative infections. Finally, PABT was an independent predictor of worse survival for patients with appendiceal and colorectal primaries.

Conclusion

Even low levels of PABT for patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC are independently associated with a greater risk of infectious and non-infectious postoperative complications, and this risk is increased for patients receiving more than 5 RBC units. Worse survival was independently predicted by PABT for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of an appendiceal or colorectal origin.

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Kubi, B., Nudotor, R., Fackche, N. et al. Impact of Perioperative Blood Transfusions on Outcomes After Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: A Propensity-Matched Analysis. Ann Surg Oncol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09501-7

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