Total Lesion Glycolysis Ratio in Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Images During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Can Predict Pathological Tumor Regression Grade and Prognosis in Patients with Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus

Abstract

Background

The usefulness of quantitating tumor lesion glycolysis (TLG) from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) findings as a tool for determining the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not yet been established.

Methods

The cohort of this retrospective study comprised 46 patients who had undergone NAC and subsequent esophagectomy for locally advanced ESCC between January 2008 and December 2017. PET/CT was conducted before and after NAC to assess its therapeutic effect. Associations between changes in TLG values during NAC and clinicopathological findings, pathological tumor regression grade (TRG), and prognosis were assessed.

Results

Most patients received two courses of DCF (Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and Fluorouracil) as NAC. The mean TLG value of the primary tumor decreased significantly after NAC. The median follow-up period was 41 months. The Kaplan–Meier method, analyzed by log-rank test, showed that low TLG ratio (≤ 0.4) and low SUVmax ratio (≤ 0.6) were associated with favorable survival outcomes (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.032, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that TLG ratio and achievement of pathological cure were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. TLG ratio was also associated with pathological TRG (TRG 0–1a vs 1b–3) (P = 0.0016).

Conclusions

TLG ratio before and after NAC is clinically useful in predicting both histological response and survival outcome after NAC and subsequent esophagectomy in patients with ESCC.

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Funding

Dr. Naoya Yoshida works for a Department that is supported by Chugai Pharmaceutical and Yakuruto Honsya. Dr. Yoshifumi Baba works for a department that is supported by Ono Pharmaceutical.

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Correspondence to Hideo Baba MD, PhD.

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Hideo Baba and the other co-authors (AS, NY, SS, TH, RT, KH, MI, YN, YB, SI, and YM) have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Supplementary Fig. 1

Receiver operating characteristic curve for overall survival by TLG ratio and SUVmax ratio (TIFF 115 kb)

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Sonoda, A., Yoshida, N., Shiraishi, S. et al. Total Lesion Glycolysis Ratio in Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Images During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Can Predict Pathological Tumor Regression Grade and Prognosis in Patients with Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus. Ann Surg Oncol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08738-6

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