Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 1340–1349 | Cite as

Single-Axillary-Incision Endoscopic-Assisted Hybrid Technique for Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: Technique, Preliminary Results, and Patient-Reported Cosmetic Outcome from Preliminary 50 Procedures

  • Hung-Wen Lai
  • Shih-Lung Lin
  • Shou-Tung Chen
  • Ka-Man Kuok
  • Shu-Ling Chen
  • Ya-Ling Lin
  • Dar-Ren Chen
  • Shou-Jen Kuo
Breast Oncology



A new hybrid technique for single-axillary-incision endoscopic-assisted nipple-sparing mastectomy (E-NSM) was introduced. Preliminary results are reported.


Patients who received single-axillary-incision E-NSM from August 2013 to August 2017 were searched from a single institution. Data were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of single-axillary-incision E-NSM. Patient-oriented cosmetic outcome report was also obtained.


During the study period, a total of 50 E-NSM with single-incision procedures were performed in 41 female patients with breast cancer, including 11 (26.8%) patients with bilateral disease. Their mean age was 45.3 ± 8.4 years. The mean size of tumors encountered during the 50 single-incision E-NSM procedures was 2.3 ± 1.8 (0.1–7.3) cm for invasive tumors and 2.6 ± 1.7 (0.2–5.7) cm for carcinoma in situ lesions. Six (12%) of those tumors were multifocal/multicentric. Lymph node metastasis was found during 12% of the procedures. Forty-five (90%) received immediate breast reconstruction with gel implant. Mean operating time was 244.3 ± 82.8 min. The overall complication rate was 6%, and no total nipple necrosis or implant loss was observed. No locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis was found during mean follow-up of 21.6 months. About 94.4% of patients were satisfied with the postoperative scar location and wound length. All patients who responded would choose the same operation again.


The proposed single-axillary-incision endoscopic hybrid technique for nipple-sparing mastectomy was a safe procedure with low morbidity and associated with high patient satisfaction.



This study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (no. 104-2314-B-371-006-MY3). This study was also sponsored by research funding provided by Changhua Christian Hospital (105-CCH-IRP-032 and 105-CCH-PRJ-003). The authors would like to thank Yun-Ting Chang, Shu-Hsin Pai, and Shun-Ing Tsai for assistance with this study.


There are no conflicts of interest in this study. None of the authors has a financial interest in any of the products, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript. Drs. Lai HW, Lin SL, Kuok KM, Chen SL, Lin YL, Chen DR, and Kuo SJ have no conflicts of interests or financial ties to disclose.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hung-Wen Lai
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Shih-Lung Lin
    • 6
  • Shou-Tung Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ka-Man Kuok
    • 2
  • Shu-Ling Chen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ya-Ling Lin
    • 1
  • Dar-Ren Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shou-Jen Kuo
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Endoscopy & Oncoplastic Breast Surgery Center, Department of SurgeryChanghua Christian HospitalChanghuaTaiwan
  2. 2.Division of General Surgery, Department of SurgeryChanghua Christian HospitalChanghuaTaiwan
  3. 3.Comprehensive Breast Cancer Center, Department of SurgeryChanghua Christian HospitalChanghuaTaiwan
  4. 4.School of MedicineNational Yang Ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Division of Breast SurgeryYuanlin Christian HospitalYuanlinTaiwan
  6. 6.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of SurgeryChanghua Christian HospitalChanghuaTaiwan

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