Treatment-Related Mortality After Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC in Patients with Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis is Underestimated by Conventional Parameters
- 516 Downloads
Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) as treatment for patients with colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is regarded as an extensive procedure. The risk of postoperative mortality after major abdominal surgery might be substantially higher than described by the 30-day mortality. This study aims to identify causes of 1-year mortality, thereby assessing a more accurate treatment-related mortality rate after CRS + HIPEC.
All subsequent patients with colorectal PC treated with CRS + HIPEC with complete macroscopic cytoreduction in two tertiary hospitals between April 2005 and April 2013 were included in this study. Causes of 1-year mortality were carefully analyzed and patient data were compared between patients who died or did not die within 12 months after CRS + HIPEC.
Of the 245 included patients, 34 (13.9 %) died within 12 months after CRS + HIPEC. The overall treatment-related mortality rate was 4.9 % (n = 12), and the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 1.6 % (n = 4) and 2.4 % (n = 6), respectively. Furthermore, 18 patients (7.3 %) died due to early recurrent disease. Three patients (1.2 %) died of cardiovascular events, unrelated to CRS + HIPEC. The 1-year mortality group had more extensive peritoneal disease (p = 0.02) and the operative time in this group was longer (p < 0.001).
Overall treatment-related mortality was considerably higher than described by the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rate. However, even though complete macroscopic cytoreduction was achieved in every patient, the main cause of 1-year mortality was early recurrent disease. Both findings are valuable in preoperative patient selection, as well as in preoperative counseling of patients undergoing a CRS + HIPEC procedure.
KeywordsPeritoneal Carcinomatosis Peritoneal Cancer Index Glasgow Prognostic Score Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Peritoneal Disease
Geert A. Simkens, Thijs R. van Oudheusden, Hidde J. Braam, Misha D. Luyer, Marinus J. Wiezer, Bert van Ramshorst, Simon W. Nienhuijs, and Ignace H. de Hingh have no disclosures to report.
- 3.Chua TC, Yan TD, Saxena A, Morris DL. Should the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy still be regarded as a highly morbid procedure? A systematic review of morbidity and mortality. Ann Surg. 2009;249(6):900–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.van Oudheusden TR, Braam HJ, Nienhuijs SW, et al. Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a feasible and effective option for colorectal cancer patients after emergency surgery in the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(8):2621–2626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Cavaliere F, De Simone M, Virzi S, et al. Prognostic factors and oncologic outcome in 146 patients with colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: Italian multicenter study S.I.T.I.L.O. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2011;37(2):148–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Kianmanesh R, Scaringi S, Sabate JM, et al. Iterative cytoreductive surgery associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin with or without liver metastases. Ann Surg. 2007;245(4):597–603.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Simkens GA, van Oudheusden TR, Luyer MD, et al. Serious postoperative complications affect early recurrence after cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014.Google Scholar
- 25.Glehen O, Gilly FN, Boutitie F, et al. Toward curative treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from nonovarian origin by cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a multi-institutional study of 1,290 patients. Cancer. 2010;116(24):5608–5618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar