Comparison of mRNA, Protein, and Urinary Nucleic Acid Levels of S100A8 and S100A9 between Prostate Cancer and BPH
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Infections and inflammation in the prostate play a critical role in carcinogenesis, and S100A8 and S100A9 are key mediators in acute and chronic inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the differences of S100A8/A9 expression between prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues, and we evaluated the possibilities of urinary nucleic acids of S100A8/A9 as diagnostic and prognostic markers.
Tissues from 132 CaP patients who underwent prostatectomy or transurethral resection and 90 BPH patients who underwent transurethral prostatectomy were assessed.sd In addition, S100A8 and S100A9 nucleic acid levels were measured in the urine of 283 CaP patients and 363 BPH controls.
S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels were lower in CaP than BPH tissues (P < 0.001). S100A8 and S100A9 expression was increased in cancer tissues with poorer prognosis. In 69 specimens from prostatectomy patients, S100A8/A9 were the independent predictor of biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio 5.22, 95 % confidence interval 1.800–15.155, P = 0.002). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that BPH tissues stained more strongly for both S100A8 and S100A9 than CaP tissues (P < 0.001). S100A8 and S100A9 urinary nucleic acid levels were lower in CaP than in BPH (P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively).
S100A8/A9 levels are lower in CaP than in BPH. Both were more highly expressed in patients with aggressive disease and shorter biochemical recurrence-free time. S100A8/A9 urinary cell-free nucleic acid levels correlated positively with expression levels obtained from tissue staining. Therefore, S100A8/A9 measurement in tissues and urine may have diagnostic and prognostic value in CaP.
KeywordsBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia Radical Prostatectomy Biochemical Recurrence S100A9 Expression Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Tissue
The specimens for this study were provided by the Chungbuk National University Hospital, a member of the National Biobank of Korea, which is supported by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs. All samples were obtained with informed consent under institutional review board–approved protocols (approval GR2010-12-010). This article was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1A4A01008753 and 2008-0062611), and by a Grant from the Next Generation BioGreen 21 Program (PJ0081952011), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.