Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 843–849 | Cite as

Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Thyroiditis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

  • Chien-Liang Liu
  • Shih-Ping Cheng
  • Hui-Wen Lin
  • Yuen-Liang Lai
Endocrine Tumors



The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis.


From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation.


A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40–27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35–18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.


We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.


Thyroid Cancer Thyroiditis Papillary Thyroid Cancer Autoimmune Thyroiditis Comparison Cohort 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chien-Liang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shih-Ping Cheng
    • 2
    • 3
    • 6
  • Hui-Wen Lin
    • 4
  • Yuen-Liang Lai
    • 3
    • 5
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Mackay Junior College of Medicine, Nursing, and ManagementTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryMackay Memorial HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.School of MedicineMackay Medical CollegeTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of MathematicsSoochow UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Radiation OncologyMackay Memorial HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Department of PharmacologyTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  7. 7.Graduate Institute of Humanities in MedicineTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  8. 8.Department of Radiation OncologyShuang Ho HospitalTaipeiTaiwan

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