Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 906–913 | Cite as

Sonographic Characteristics Suggesting Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma According to Nodule Size

  • Ga Ram Kim
  • Myung Hyun Kim
  • Hee Jung Moon
  • Woong Youn Chung
  • Jin Young Kwak
  • Eun-Kyung Kim
Head and Neck Oncology



To determine differences in ultrasonography (US) features suggesting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) between nodules larger than 10 mm (large lesions) and nodules ≤10 mm in diameter (small lesions).


We included 1,238 nodules in 1,173 patients that were confirmed through cytology or histopathology between February 2007 and June 2007 in the study. Nodules were divided into large lesions (571 lesions) and small lesions (667 lesions). Sonographic features were defined as composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, shape, and vascularity. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds ratios (OR) of each feature to predict PTC.


On multivariate analysis, irregular margin (OR = 37.788, P < 0.001), microcalcifications (OR = 17.799, P < 0.001), microlobulated margin (OR = 10.385, P < 0.001), and no vascularity (OR = 5.975, P < 0.001) were independent factors for PTC in the large lesions and irregular margin (OR = 7.185, P < 0.001), microlobulated margin (OR = 5.952, P < 0.001), microcalcifications (OR = 3.722, P < 0.001), marked hypoechogenicity (OR = 2.873, P = 0.004), and taller than wide shape (OR = 2.698, P < 0.001) were independent factors for PTC in the small lesions.


The OR of each US finding for predicting PTC is different between large and small lesions. Therefore, it would be helpful to weight certain US features according to nodule size when reporting thyroid nodules with different risks of PTC.


Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Nodule Small Lesion Large Lesion Nodule Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Conflict of interest

None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ga Ram Kim
    • 1
  • Myung Hyun Kim
    • 1
  • Hee Jung Moon
    • 1
  • Woong Youn Chung
    • 2
  • Jin Young Kwak
    • 1
  • Eun-Kyung Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyResearch Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of SurgerySeverance Hospital, Yonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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