Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 1287–1294 | Cite as

Factors Influencing Surgical and Adjuvant Therapy in Stage I Breast Cancer: A SEER 18 Database Analysis

  • Shayna L. Showalter
  • Surbhi Grover
  • Sonam Sharma
  • Lillie Lin
  • Brian J. Czerniecki
Breast Oncology



Randomized trials have shown no survival difference for patients with stage I breast cancer treated with mastectomy versus breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiotherapy (RT). RT is recommended after BCS in order to decrease local recurrence and mortality. We sought to evaluate the treatment trends in patients with stage I breast cancer.


We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify 194,860 women with stage I breast cancer diagnosed from 1988 to 2007. We evaluated factors that were associated surgical treatment and the utilization of RT after BCS.


There was a progressive decline in the proportion of patients with stage I breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy from 1998 to 2007. Significant predictors for being treated with mastectomy included single/divorced women (p = 0.007), white race (p < 0.001), estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001), earlier year of diagnosis (p < 0.001), smaller tumor size (p < 0.001), and region (p < 0.001). Twenty percent of the BCS cohort did not receive RT, and this proportion did not change over time. Significant predictors for not receiving RT included small tumor size (p < 0.001), African American race (p < 0.001), increasing age (p < 0.001), single/divorced women (p < 0.001), estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001), and region (p < 0.001). The survival for patients treated with BCS and RT was significantly higher than for those who did not receive RT (p < 0.001).


The use of BCS for the treatment of stage I breast cancer increased over time. A constant proportion of patients did not receive RT after BCS. Omission of RT in BCS is associated with an increase in mortality.


Breast Cancer African American Woman Early Stage Breast Cancer Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy Mastectomy Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shayna L. Showalter
    • 1
  • Surbhi Grover
    • 2
  • Sonam Sharma
    • 2
  • Lillie Lin
    • 2
  • Brian J. Czerniecki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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