A Look into the Ductoscope: Its Role in Pathologic Nipple Discharge
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Mammary ductoscopy allows direct visualization of the ductal system and a method for directed excision and pathologic diagnosis. We reviewed our experience with mammary ductoscopy in the evaluation of pathologic nipple discharge.
We reviewed all patients who underwent ductoscopy for pathologic nipple discharge at our institution from 2006–2010. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon. Data included patient and imaging characteristics, indications, operative findings, and pathologic outcomes. Descriptive statistics were used for data summary.
During the study period, 121 patients underwent ductoscopy and directed duct excision for pathologic nipple discharge, including 66 (55%) with bloody discharge. Breast imaging [mammography, ultrasound, and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] revealed BIRADS category I/II/III findings in 112 (93%), BIRADS category IV findings in 6 (5%), and was unknown in 3 (2%) patients. Final pathology revealed papillomas in 64 (53%) patients, duct ectasia and associated benign findings in 48 (40%) patients, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in 7 (6%) patients, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 2 (1%) patients. None of the patients with DCIS underwent preductoscopy MRI, but all had BIRADS category I/II/III breast imaging. The extent of DCIS identified by ductoscopy and subsequent surgical excision ranged from <1 cm to 10 cm (median 3 cm).
The majority of patients with pathologic nipple discharge have benign nonproliferative findings or benign papillomas. Although atypia and malignancy were diagnosed in only 7% of patients who underwent ductoscopy for pathologic nipple discharge, there were no routine imaging findings indicative of these diagnoses preoperatively.
KeywordsNipple Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Nipple Discharge Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal Lesion
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