Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 1713–1719 | Cite as

The Immunological Impact of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on the Tumor Microenvironment of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Takahiro Tsuchikawa
  • Masaki Miyamoto MD
  • Yoshiyuki Yamamura
  • Toshiaki Shichinohe
  • Satoshi Hirano
  • Satoshi Kondo
Translational Research and Biomarkers



Esophageal cancer is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. However, little is known about the immune response in the tumor microenvironment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


To investigate the immunological impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the tumor microenvironment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.


Eighteen patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed using immunohistochemical methods for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I heavy chain, CD4-, CD8-, and Foxp3-positive cell infiltration.


The number of CD4 T cells in the stroma and within the cancer nest was significantly higher in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. The number of CD8 T cells in the stroma was significantly higher in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. HLA class I expression was more downregulated in the control group compared with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group.


Neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilizing 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is useful to induce CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment and to maintain HLA class I expression levels in combination with its direct cytotoxic effects.


Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Microenvironment Treg Cell Human Leukocyte Antigen Class Immune Cell Infiltration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We appreciate Hiraku Shida for his technical assistance in immunohistochemistry.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takahiro Tsuchikawa
    • 1
  • Masaki Miyamoto MD
    • 1
  • Yoshiyuki Yamamura
    • 1
  • Toshiaki Shichinohe
    • 1
  • Satoshi Hirano
    • 1
  • Satoshi Kondo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of SurgeryHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan

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