Redefining Eligibility by Analyzing Canceled Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Boost for Patients Undergoing Breast-Conserving Treatment

  • Jun Won Kim
  • Yeona Cho
  • Jinhyun Choi
  • Sung Gwe Ahn
  • Joon Jeong
  • Ik Jae LeeEmail author
Breast Oncology



Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with a 50-kV x-ray is used for a tumor bed boost during breast-conserving surgery. This study evaluated the anatomicosurgical factors associated with cancellation of planned IORT.


Patient eligibility for the study included age of 20 years or older, compatibility for lumpectomy, and ductal carcinoma in situ or stages 1–3 invasive carcinoma. All the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidisciplinary team evaluations. Resection margins were assessed by frozen pathology. Pre- and intraoperative variables were compared between the IORT and IORT-cancellation groups.


A total of 434 patients underwent surgeries for IORT between August 2014 and December 2017. For 90 of these patients, IORT was canceled because of repeated positive margins leading to a large cavity or total mastectomy (n = 27), insufficient cavity-skin distance (n = 14), satellite lesions leading to a large cavity or total mastectomy (n = 12), MRI findings of a large primary tumor or uncertain margins leading to a large cavity (n = 6), cavity geometry unsuitable for IORT (n = 6), subareolar tumor extension (n = 6), tumor abutting the pectoralis muscle (n = 3), patient refusal (n = 5), intraoperative confirmation of bilateral breast cancer (n = 3) or benign pathology (n = 3), device malfunction (n = 3), or scheduling difficulty (n = 2). A tumor larger than 2 cm (P = 0.014) and the presence of satellite lesions (P = 0.014) were independent predictors of IORT cancellation.


Surgical procedures resulting in large cavities were the leading cause of IORT cancellation. Multidisciplinary evaluations using MRI were critical for completion of IORT procedures.



This work was supported by the Korea Breast Cancer Foundation (2016-31-0459/KBCF-2016R002) and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea (2017R1D1A1B03035047).


The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10434_2019_7819_MOESM1_ESM.tif (796 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 796 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Won Kim
    • 1
  • Yeona Cho
    • 1
  • Jinhyun Choi
    • 2
  • Sung Gwe Ahn
    • 3
  • Joon Jeong
    • 3
  • Ik Jae Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University HospitalJeju National University School of MedicineJejuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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